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A Testimony 

Volume X 

Compliments of 
Two Christian Laymen 

The original of tliis bool< is in 
tine Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 

f ' 

The Fundamentals 

A Testimony to the Truth 

'To the Law and to the Testimony" 

Isaiah 3:20 

Volume X 

Compliments of 
Two Christian Laymen 

Testimony Publishing Company 

(Not Inc.) 
808 La Salle Ave., Chicago, III., 0. S. A. 


The tenth volume of "The Fundamentals" goes free to 
all English-speaking Protestant religious workers who re- 
quested it by signing the card which we inclosed in the ninth 
volume and mailing it to our business office, "Testimony Pub- 
lishing Company, 808 La Salle Avenue, Chicago, Illinois." It 
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(See PubHshers' Notice, page 128.) 

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in sincerity. Amen. 
(Signed) The Executive Secretary "The Fundamentals." 

Address all editorial correspondence to "Box 8, Monrovia, 
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(See Publishers' Notice, Page 128.) 



I. Why Save tHE Lord's Day? 5 

By Rev. Daniel Hoffman Martin, D. D., 
Glens Falls, New York. 

II. The Internal Evidence of the Fourth Gospel. 18 
By Canon G. Osborne Troop, M. A., 
Montreal, Quebec, Canada. 

III. The Nature of Regeneration 26 

By Thomas Boston. 

IV. Regeneration — Conversion — Reformation. . . 31 

By Rev. George W. Lasher, D. D., LL. D., 
Cincinnati, Ohio. 

V. Our Lord's Teachings About Money 39 

By Arthur T. Pierson. 

VI. Satan and His Kingdom 48 

By Mrs. Jessie Penn-Lewis, 
Leicester, England. 

VII, The Holy Spirit and the Sons of God 64 

By Rev. W. J. Erdman, D. D., 
Germantown, Pennsylvania. 

VIII. Consecration 79 

By Rev. Henry W. Frost, 
Germantown, Pennsylvania. 

IX. The Apologetic Value of Paul's Epistles 89 

By Rev. E. J. Stobo, Jr., B. A., S. T. D., 
Smith's Falls, Ontario, Canada. 

X. What the Bible Contains for the Beuever. . . 97 
By Rev. George F. Pentecost, D. D., 
Darien, Connecticut. 

XI. Modern Spiritualism Briefly Tested by Scrip- 
ture Ill 

By Algernon J. Pollock, 
Weston-Super-Mare, England. 






The only command in the Decalogue which begins with 
the word "Remember" is the fourth: "Remember the Sab- 
bath day to keep it holy," as if the Divine writer realized 
there would be more danger of forgetting this than any of 
the others, and of yielding to the subtle temptations of caprice 
and convenience as an excuse for violating it. "Remember" 
stands like a solitary sentinel in front of this solemn com- 
mand, yet it has been chafed under, from the ancient Jew 
who was stoned for gathering sticks on the Sabbath, down 
to the Sunday saloon-keeper who, in commercializing his fel- 
low-man's weakness, breaks three laws, that of the Sabbath, 
the State, and brotherly love. 

Jesus declared the Sabbath was made for man, that is, 
for mankind. It is to be kept holy, that is wholesomely, so 
that our threefold nature, body, mind and soul, may benefit. 
No law more wise and merciful ever came from the loving 
heart of God ; a law as all-embracing in its design as sunlight, 
meeting the needs of king and peasant, master and servant, 
parent and child. Whence came the wisdom condensed in 
this fourth commandment? Not from the Greeks, called the 
wisest of nations, for these words were written a thou- 

6 The Fundamentals 

sand years before Socrates was born. Not from the Romans, 
masters of jurisprudence, for these words antedate the found- 
ing of Rome, by seven hundred and fifty years. They come 
from our Heavenly Father and they embody the great sep- 
tenary law <vhich runs through nature ; therefore it is of equal 
application to every nation on earth. The Sabbath is the 
savings bank of human existence. It conserves man's physi- 
cal, mental, spiritual and eternal welfare. 


If you ask why the Jewish Saturday once observed as 
Lord's Day was changed to the First Day, the answer is that 
Jesus proclaimed Himself Lord also of the Sabbath day, 
therefore greater than the statute law of Moses. Jesus is the 
incarnate Legislator of the world. As Lord of the Sabbath, 
Jesus had the right to interpret and ennoble the day, so that 
it might be the greatest institution for the culture of the three- 
fold man. The Scribes and Pharisees had misconceived the 
genius of the Sabbath law. They missed its underlying prin- 
ciple, encumbered it with intricate and inflexible rules, assum- 
ing themselves to be the judges of every act. "The letter 
killeth, the spirit giveth life." Jesus rescued the Sabbath 
from its burial under a mass of ceremonialism, and revealed 
its true spirit and meaning. "Jesus did for the Sabbath what 
a skipper does for his ship, when she comes laboring into 
port, unable to make headway, because her hulk is covered 
with barnacles. He puts her into drydock, and scrapes off 
the barnacles. He does not scuttle the ship. So our Lord 
does not repeal nor annul the Sabbath law when He strips it 
of the intolerable burdens which the ceremonialists had heaped 
upon it." In order to emphasize His new idea of the old 
Sabbath the disciples chose a new day as Lord's Day. 

The disciples also desired to commemorate the greatest of 
all events since the world's creation, namely, the resurrection 
of our Lord, for it was on the first day of the week that 

IV hy Save the Lord's Day? 7 

Jesus made His first five appearances. It was also on the 
first day of the week that the Holy Spirit was given, there- 
fore Pentecost was commemorated on that day. (Acts 2.) 
It was on this day also that the great tidings of salvation 
were first preached to the multitudes. (Acts 2.) The first 
day became the day in which all the early Christians assembled 
for worship, and for communion. (Acts 20:7 and 1 Cor. 
11:23.) It was the day also in which the prophecy of Rev- 
elation was granted to St. John on Patmos. (Rev. 1 : 10.) 
All the church fathers kept the Lord's Day instead of the 
Jewish Sabbath, and thus the Christian Sabbath became the 
weekly holy day of the Christian dispensation, and is the 
only Sabbath day mentioned as a sacred rest day after the 


Is this king of days, created by our Father, sanctified by 
our Saviour, preserved by the Church, worth saving? Some 
would have us think we have outgrown it, that it belongs to 
another time, governed by different conditions. A moment's 
thought will show that it is impossible to outgrow a law of 
nature, such as this septenary law is proved to be. And here 
are a few of the reasons : 


First, man has a body. Experience proves that the nor- 
mal level of bodily energy cannot be maintained without the 
regular observance of a stated day of rest. We are like 
seven-day clocks that run down and have to be rewound. We 
are like musical instruments that play well for a time and get 
out of tune. We are storage batteries that leak their vital 
currents, and must be recharged. There was never an age 
when humanity needed this weekly rest-day more than now. 
Think of the fierce competition of modern business, and the 
relentless law of the survival of the strongest ! Think of the 

8 The Fundamentals 

feverish hurry and hustle of our American people! Ian 
Maclaren wrote thus about us: "I am now in New York, 
where everybody seems to be in a hurry. I asked a police- 
man what the excitement was all about. He thought I was 
joking. No one walks to business who can ride in a street 
car; none rides in a street car who can ride in a steam car, 
and he regrets there is no pneumatic tube by which h-e might 
be shot to his office or shop. When there, he does not write 
letters if he can telegraph, or telegraph if he can telephone, 
and regrets there is no occupation for his feet while waiting 
at the phone." There is magnetism in our oxygen which 
stimulates our blood and explains our American push and 

The difficulty, with our splendid American activity and 
achievement, is to arrest the momentum. Men rush so hard 
through the week that the Day of Rest finds them in the rush- 
ing mood. It is hard to stop. They want to do something 
or go somewhere, or keep up the pace by some dissipating use 
of the Lord's Day. Hence the Sunday excursions which gen- 
erally make an incursion into the week's wages, and leave the 
working man more tired on that night than any other of the 
week. And there are Sunday amusements and dinner parties 
and receptions. But the human organism is not a machine of 
iron to run without rest, but a delicate bundle of nerves and 
tissues. But even iron machinery does better work and lasts 
longer when it has periodic rests, as the superintendent of the 
Pennsylvania railroad said recently about their locomotives. 


Second, man has a mind. It is a fact of common record 
that no set of men can keep working the same mental tread- 
mill day after day without blunting the keen edge of their 
intellectual faculties. Note the employees who are held at 
their monotonous grind seven days out of seven, month after 
month, and you will observe that the average intelligence and 

Why Save the Lord's Day? 9 

moral standards are low. They read scarcely anything and 
take practically no interest in current events. A boy asked 
his father to take him "next Sunday to see the animals at 
the Bronx Zoo," The father has to work seven days a week, 
and he replied, "You needn't go to the Bronx to see animals; 
look at me, I am not much different from the horses I drive 
in front of my milk wagon." Do you wonder Jesus said the 
Sabbath was made for man? For man, that he might be 
something different from an animal. As soon as God had 
created man He ordained the Sabbath, because He knew the 
needs of man. 

We can ill afford to make light of God's merciful pro- 
vision of this weekly arrest of physical and mental toil. Sci- 
ence supports the Divine law by showing in the analysis of 
the blood, that during our application to work through the 
week we recover in one night's rest only five-sixths of the 
ounce of oxygen consumed out of our system by the day's 
labor. Each morning finds one-sixth of an ounce lacking, 
so that a man is run down at the end of the week to the 
extent of that whole ounce of vitality. The Lord's Day is a 
physiological necessity for the restoration of that one ounce. 
When a man presumes to be wiser than this law of nature 
and of God, he usually pays the penalty by breaking down 
with that peculiar malady "Americanitis," a compound of 
insomnia and nervous debility. Then the physician most 
likely prescribes a sea voyage, for that will be an enforced 
rest for the depleted system. But a proper observance of 
the Lord's day would have supplied that very need, because 
the Lord's Day is a sea voyage between the two continents of 
monotony and drudgery. There would be little need of pro- 
longed trips abroad, or sojourns in a sanatarium, if the Sab- 
bath could have its claims respected. Fifty-two Sabbaths a 
year mean nearly two months vacation to every worker. When 
a man wipes the Sabbath out of his calendar he breaks a law 
of nature, and nature always squares accounts with broken 

10 The Fundamentals 

law. Of many another could this doggerel be truthfully 
spoken concerning a man : 

"Who spent his health to get his wealth. 
And then with might and main 
He turned around and spent his wealth 
To get his health again." 


Third, man has a soul. A great jurist recently said: 
"In this strenuous age, our republic, instead of making hght 
of one Sabbath, ought to have tzvo each week, not only to re- 
pair its jaded nerves, but to tone up its moral sense." We 
have not fulfilled all the command when we have rested the 
body and diverted the mind. The soul has its rights, and not 
to recognize them is to leave our nature a truncated cone, 
the highest, finest part left undeveloped. We read of Jesus 
that "He went as His custom uras into the synagogue on the Sab- 
bath day." That His soul might keep its tryst with God, have 
larger breathing space, clearer light, and glimpses of the cen- 
ter of the spiritual universe, in which our spirits join and 
have their being. If Jesus needed that privilege, much more 
do we ordinary men. The shell fishes on the sea-shore live 
without water while the tide is out, but they depend upon the 
tide's return. If any of them are tossed by the waves beyond 
the reach of the tides, they die. Our souls are refreshed and 
nourished by communion with our Father in prayer, and 
through the means of grace provided by Divine worship on 
the Lord's Day. It is then we lay hold of our best yearnings, 
and stiffen them into fighting fibre for victorious warfare with 
the world, the flesh and the devil. 

The artist Turner kept on his easel a handful of precious 
stones of beautiful colors. For a half hour each morning he 
would silently sit and gaze at those glorious tints. He said 
he did this to keep his color-sense acute. If the artist's eye 
needed that influence to keep its color sense toned up, surely 

Why Save the Lord's Day? 11 

the human soul needs the tonic influence of spiritual wor- 
ship. What is the cloud that looms over every man's path 
every day? Not sorrow, not poverty, not sickness, not busi- 
ness reverses. The cloud that looms over every path is 
TEMPTATION. Some time ago a man who had not been 
in church for many years, secured a pew in his old church, 
and is now one of its regular attendants. Someone asked 
him the reason. He said, "I have a growing family of sons 
and daughters. I have been watching my boys with some 
anxiety. I am alarmed at what I read in the daily papers 
about the ways of the world, the ease with which men under 
temptation go down like reeds in the wind, the frequency with 
which husbands and wives break up their homes. I am con- 
vinced there is only one place to bring up a family of chil- 
dren, and that is the church." Who will question that father's 
judgment? He does not want his sons to grow up without 
moral anchorage, he does not want his daughters to marry 
those who will play fast and loose with honor, and he knows 
that the church with its worship is the place where ideals are 
burnished up, where the dust is cleansed from the soul's wings, 
where false standards are corrected. 

Ha busy brain worker could see a photograph of his mind 
as it appears on Saturday night, with its six layers of toil and 
grime, representing the six days contact with the world, he 
would see himself much in need of a spiritual bath on the 
Lord's Day. The average breadwinner is a human foot- 
ball, tossed hither and yon from the goal of Monday to the 
goal of Saturday, and literally dumped into the Sabbath morn- 
ing bruised from the battle. He is apt to feel soured and out 
of sorts; and nothing so soothes the wounds as contact with 
the people of God in the Lord's house. 


So the Sabbath was made for man, that he might be in 
every sense MAN ! Something more than a beast of burden. 

12 The Fundamentals 

something more than a cash-register, something more than a 
pendulum swinging between his home and his business. In an 
ordinary lifetime of seventy years there arre ten years of Sun- 
days. Therefore the manner in which a man keeps those 
three thousand six hundred and forty Sabbaths will make its 
impress on the man's life for all eternity. 

When a man says and thinks that he has a right to do 
as he pleases on the Lord's Day, with no reference to the 
sacredness of the day, or its claims upon his soul, we may con- 
clude that man has not accepted his Heavenly Father's esti- 
mate of the worth of a man. He assesses himself at a lower 
value. God created man in His own image, in the image of 
God created He him. But the man says, "I will rub out the 
Divine lineaments. God started me on an immortal journey 
but I am satisfied to let it end in the graveyard." There isn't 
much use trying to reason with a man who puts the body 
first and last, who regards his face as a mere opening for 
the alimentary canal, and who allows the lower nature to pre- 
side at the funeral of the higher. 

Man, do you think the Almighty God made a mistake when 
He started you on an eternal journey? Is your soul a joke? 
Has God not said: "If thou turn away thy foot from the 
Sabbath, from doing thy pleasure on My holy day and call 
the Sabbath a delight, holy of the Lord and honorable and 
shall honor Him in not doing thy own ways, nor finding thy 
own pleasure, nor speaking thy own words, then shalt thou 
delight thyself in the Lord, and I will cause thee to ride upon 
the high places of the earth, for the mouth of the Lord hath 
spoken it." (Isa. 58:13, 14.) 


There are those who say, "If the Sabbath was made for 
man, why may he not do as he pleases with it?" Because it 
was made for man's liberty, not for man's license, and the 
highest liberty is always found in conformity to law. So 

Why Save the Lord's Day? 13 

long as my doings affect no one else's liberty, I may do as I 
choose, but the moment I cross some one else's rights, I am 
not free to do as I choose. I am limited by the higher law of 
brotherly love. If you think you are at liberty to travel 
on the Lord's Day or attend a ball-game or concert on 
that day, you are not conforming to the law of brotherly 
love in that you force your fellow man to work for you on 
the day that you enjoy your freedom. But you reply, "Those 
people who toil on the Lord's Day receive extra pay." Extra 
pay ! My friend, there is not gold enough in the bosom of the 
eternal hills to compensate a single toiler for his loss of the 
PLACE THE LOSS OF MANHOOD. "But the train of 
cars that I board on the Sabbath would run anyway, and I 
might as well go on it." My friend, how does that cancel 
your share of the moral responsibility for having forced your 
brother man to violate the law of the Sabbath? 

"Well, I am so busy during the week that I have no other 
day for recreation. From Monday to Saturday I grind like 
Samson at the mill." Yes, but you are no busier than the 
Sabbath-keeping toilers who manage to get their recreation 
at other times. If you honestly believe that you have no other 
day than the Lord's Day for your pleasure seeking, I ask 
you in all solemnity, have you any other day for the culture 
of your spiritual life? When are you going to attend to your 
immortal soul? Now is the accepted time, what are you do- 
ing with it? Some one has said, "The Lord's Day is like a 
rented house; it belongs to the proprietor, it is occupied by 
the tenant, but the tenant has no right to say, T will do what 
I please with this house, damage it, desecrate it, turn it into 
an evil resort.' No, the house is his to use and not abuse. 
The Sabbath is ours in the same way ; he who diverts it from 
its proper purpose is dishonest. Will a man rob God? If a 
tramp tells me a pitiful tale and I have seven silver dollars 

14 The Fundamentals 

and give six of them, what would you think of the ingrate if 
you were told he came at night and robbed me of the seventh ? 
I wonder what God thinks of the man to whom He gives six 
days for his own free use and finds the man appropriating 
to himself that which is specially stamped as God's." 

What is the use of a Lord's Day if it is to be swamped 
between the secular tide of one worldly week gone, and of 
another coming, and to have nothing about it that distin- 
guishes it from all the other days, except in some fanciful 
alteration in the style of its wordliness or carnality? Look at 
the people who have spent the entire Sabbath in pleasure- 
seeking. Not one gleam of spiritual light in their faces, not 
one crumb of spiritual food in their souls, going to bed at 
night a day's march nearer home. Home? Yes, if home is 
the grave and eternal death . Otherwise a day's march farther 
from home, if home is God, and if heaven is an experience 
into which men graduate from this earthly season of moral 
training and spiritual acquisition. 


We are not pleading for a Puritan Sunday of bigotry or 
intolerance. We are not pleading for blue laws. But as be- 
tween bigotry and a mush of concession give us bigotry every 
time. And even the bluest of blue laws would be preferable 
to red anarchy. We appeal for a safe and sane Sabbath, not 
in the interests of the Church or religion, but in the interests 
of all the people, believers and unbelievers, because the Sab- 
bath was made for mankind. When I stood the other day in 
the little log cabin where Abraham Lincoln first saw the light, 
I thought of his regard for the Sabbath, and there came to my 
mind these words of his : "As we keep, or break, the Sab- 
bath day, we nobly save, or meanly lose, the last best hope 
by which man rises." 

It is true there are many noble people who never get a 
Sabbath to themselves. They are busy in works of necessity 

Why Save the Lord's Day? 15 

and mercy, Jesus Himself sets the example of this, and leaves 
to our enlightened consciences to judge what is necessary, and 
what is not, to do on His day. The fundamental principle is 
to be "in the spirit on the Lord's Day," to be in tune with our 
Lord's mind, to be in harmony with our Lord's will. So if 
you ask what rules do you suggest for the proper observance 
of the Lord's Day I answer, THERE IS NO RULE BUT 
LATION TO THE LORD'S DAY. Therefore, before I 
give a Sunday house party, or travel for my own pleasure, 
or talk a lot of twaddle at the telephone on the Lord's Day 
I will say, "I would not like to be obliged myself to work 
on Sunday; therefore it is wrong for me to oblige others to 
work. I will not buy a Sunday paper, knowing that I am 
forcing a hundred and fifty thousand compositors and press- 
men to work seven days out of seven, and robbing a great 
army of men and boys of their right to a day of rest and wor- 
ship. True, that newsboy is poor, and needs the money, but 
I refuse to take advantage of that boy's poverty by contrib- 
uting to his moral detriment. It is bad that he is poor, it is 
worse that I should make him a law-breaker." All over this 
country a hundred thousand boys are training for manhood 
with no reverence for the Sabbath, and no respect for au- 
thority, in order to supply a Sunday newspaper for people 
who would be infinitely better off to have one whole day in 
which the dust and rubbish of six secular days could not 
enter. When the attempt to introduce a Sunday newspaper 
was made in London, the "Evening Post" commented: "The 
best view which can be taken of our own Sunday newspapers 
must be that they are a nuisance. They are twice cursed; 
they curse him that prints them and him that reads them. 
They add new terrors to Sunday. On purely humanitarian 
grounds, without allowing theological reasons to have any 
weight whatever, we could wish them all away. If there is 
any more pathetic sight than a man deliberately sitting down 

16 The Fundamentals 

to wade through a sextuple Sunday newspaper, we do not 
know what it is." 

That is the new indictment of the Sunday press from a 
secular viewpoint. We may easily see the harm it does from 
a spiritual viewpoint. A mind that has waded through the 
Sunday sheet is no more prepared for spiritual thoughts than 
is a man's clothing for appearance at church after rambling 
over fields of burdocks and nettles. The very purpose of the 
Sabbath was to give God's children one whole day free from 
the suggestions and contaminations of a wicked world. 


O men, does it not touch a tender place in your hearts when 
you hear of the multitudes of wage earners who are plead- 
ing for a Sabbath restday? Railroad men, miners, actors, 
craftsmen of all sorts, signing petitions for a recognition of 
their right to a weekly day of rest, making their appeal on 
the grounds of common humanity. Here is one from a mem- 
ber of the bartenders' union. He said : "I cannot of course 
appeal to you from the standpoint of religion, but we have 
some interests in common with other men. I am myself the 
father of three children, but I scarcely know them. I am up 
in the morning before they are awake, and I return at night 
after they are in bed. This I do seven days a week, year in 
and year out." That from the bartenders' union. And simi- 
lar appeals are made from thousands of other toilers ; because 
every man has a right to his manhood, and the Sabbath was 
made for man. 


For Christian men and women there can be only one 
course of action. There may be perplexing situations at 
times, where even a Christian will be puzzled to decide just 
what to do; but with a mind brought, as the Apostle says, 
"into captivity to the obedience of Christ" the ground is level 

Why Save the Lord's Day? 17 

and the air cleared for meeting them. When we fully recog- 
nize the Lord's lordship of this Day of days, we will never 
go far astray. Every question as to the proper observance 
of it will be dealt with in its Divine relations to our Divine 
Master. It is more than half the answer to any question to 
be in tune with the principles involved in the solution of the 
question. "I was in the spirit on the Lord's Day," said the 
Apostle. To keep that pregnant phrase in mind will settle 
the details of every program of conduct on that day. 

God help us all to resist the drift of Sabbath seculariza- 
tion. Doubtless it will cost us something to be loyal to prin- 
ciple in this day of many jelly fish Christians, who have opin- 
ions without convictions, and prejudices without principles. 
A refreshing shadow of a great rock in a weary land is the 
man of convictions and principles who can resist the drifting 
sands of a loose interpretation of the Divine commands. The 
demand today is for rock Christians. We are living in a 
time when the people who settle questions of right and wrong 
for themselves seem to be in a minority. In matters of morals 
and dress most of us go in droves. A few people act as brain 
for the many, a few people act as conscience for the many. 
But we who have the light of God's Word need not be mas- 
tered by the mob. One is our Master, even Christ. A great 
many people are doing certain things on the Lord's Day, not 
because they have settled the question, as between themselves 
and their Lord, but because they have settled it as between 
themselves and their own preferences, or as between them- 
selves and their associates. 

Let us be rock Christians, who will keep the Lord's Day 
holy because it holds us in touch with eternal and Divine 
things, and because it celebrates our relation to our Divine 
Master; and because the Lord's Day is the guerdon of our 
national prosperity, the hope of our civilization; and because 
the mouth of Jehovah hath spoken: "Them that honor Me 
I will honor." 




The whole Bible is stamped with the Divine "Hall-Mark" ; 
but the Gospel according to St. John is primus inter pares. 
Through it, as through a transparency, we gaze entranced 
into the very holy of holies, where shines in unearthly glory 
"the great vision of the face of Christ". Yet man's per- 
versity has made it the "storm center" of New Testament 
criticism, doubtless for the very reason that it bears such 
unwavering testimony both to the deity of our Lord and 
Saviour, Jesus Christ, and to His perfect humanity. The 
Christ of the Fourth Gospel is no unhistoric, idealized vision 
of the later, dreaming church, but is, as it practically claims 
to be, the picture drawn by "the disciple whom Jesus loved", 
an eye-witness of the blood and water that flowed from His 
pierced side. These may appear to be mere unsupported 
statements, and as such will at once be dismissed by a scien- 
tific reader. Nevertheless the appeal of this article is to the 
instinct of the "one flock" of the "one Shepherd". "They 
know His voice" ... "a stranger will they not follow." 

1. There is one passage in this Gospel that flashes like 
lightning — it dazzles our eyes by its very glory. To the 
broken-hearted Martha the Lord Jesus says with startling 
suddenness, "/ am the resurrection and the life; he that 
believeth on Me, though he die, yet shall he live; and who- 
soever liveth and believeth in Me, shall never die." 

It is humbly but confidently submitted that these words 
are utterly beyond the reach of human invention. It could 


The Internal Evidence qf the Fourth Gospel 19 

never have entered the heart of man to say, "/ am the resur- 
rection and the life." "There is a resurrection and a Hfe," 
would have been a great and notable saying, but this Speaker 
identifies Himself with the resurrection and with life eternal. 
The words can only be born from above, and He who utters 
them is worthy of the utmost adoration of the surrendered 

In an earlier chapter John records a certain question 
addressed to and answered by our Lord in a manner which 
has no counterpart in the world's literature. "What shall 
we do," the eager people cry; "What shall we do that we 
might work the works of God?" "This is the work of God", 
our Lord replies, "that ye believe on Him whom He hath 
sent" (John 6:28, 29). I venture to say that such an 
answer to such a question has no parallel. This is the work 
of God that ye accept ME. I am the Root of the tree which 
bears the only fruit pleasing to God. Our Lord states the 
converse of this in chapter 16, when He says that the Holy 
Spirit will "convict the world of sin . . . because they 
believe not on ME." The root of all evil is unbelief in 
Christ. The condemning sin of the world lies in the rejection 
of the Redeemer. Here we have the root of righteousness 
and the root of sin in the acceptance or rejection of His 
wondrous personality. This is unique, and proclaims the 
Speaker to be "separate from sinners" though "the Lord hath 
laid on Him the iniquity of us all." Truly, 

"He is His own best evidence, 
His witness is within." 

2. Pass on to the fourteenth chapter, so loved of all 
Christians. Listen to that Voice, which is as the voice of 
many waters, as it sounds in the ears of the troubled disciples : 
"Let not your heart be troubled; ye believe in God, believe 
also in ME. In My Father's house are many mansions : if it 
were not so, I would have told you. I go to prepare a place 

20 The Fundamentals 

for you. And if I go and prepare a place for you, I will 
come again, and receive you unto Myself; that where I am, 
there ye may be also." 

Who is he who dares to say : "Ye believe in God, believe 
also in Me"? He ventures thus to speak because He is the 
Father's Son. Man's son is man : can God's Son be anything 
less than God? Elsewhere in this Gospel He says: "I and 
the Father are one". The fourteenth chapter reveals the 
Lord Jesus as completely at home in the heavenly company. 
He speaks of His Father and of the Holy Spirit as Himself 
being one of the utterly holy Family. He knows all about His 
Father's house with its many mansions. He was familiar 
with it before the world was. Mark well, too, the exquisite 
touch of transparent truthfulness : "If it were not so, I 
would have told you." An ^ar-witness alone could have 
caught and preserved that touching parenthesis, and who 
more likely than the disciple w^hom Jesus loved? 

As we leave this famous chapter let us not forget to 
note the wondrous words in verse 23 : "If a man love Me, 
he will keep My words; and My Father will love him, and 
WE will come unto him and make our abode with him." 

This saying can only be characterized as blasphemous, if 
it be not the true utterance of one equal with God. On the 
other hand, does any reasonable man seriously think that 
such words originated in the mind of a forger? "Every one 
that is of the truth heareth My voice", and surely that voice 
is here. 

3. When we come to chapter 17 we pass indeed into the 
very inner chamber of the King of kings. It records the 
high-priestly prayer of our Lord, when He "lifted up His eyes 
to heaven and said, Father, the hour is come, glorify Thy 
Son that Thy Son may also glorify Thee." Let any man 
propose to himself the awful task of forging such a prayer, 
and putting it into the mouth of an imaginary Christ. The 
brain reels at the very thought of it. It is, however, per- 

The Internal Evidence of the Fourth Gospel 21 

fectly natural that St. John should record it. It must have 
fallen upon the ears of himself and his fellow-disciples amidst 
an awe-stricken silence in which they could hear the very 
throbbing of their listening hearts. For their very hearts 
were listening through their ears as the Son poured out His 
soul unto the Father. It is a rare privilege, and one from 
which most men would sensitively shrink, to listen even to a 
fellow-man alone with God. Yet the Lord Jesus in the 
midst of His disciples laid bare His very soul before His 
Father, as really as if He had been alone with Him. He 
prayed with the cross and its awful death full in view, but 
in the prayer there is no slightest hint of failure or regret, 
and there is no trace of confession of sin or need of forgive- 
ness. These are all indelible marks of genuineness. It would 
have been impossible for a sinful man to conceive such a 
prayer. But all is consistent with the character of Him who 
"spake as never man spake", and could challenge the world 
to convict Him of sin. 

With such thoughts in mind let us now look more closely 
into the words of the prayer itself. 

"Father, the hour is come; glorify Thy Son, that Thy 
Son also may glorify Thee: As Thou hast given Him power 
over all flesh, that He should give eternal life to as many 
as Thou hast given Him. And this is life eternal, that they 
might know Thee, the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom 
Thou hast sent." 

Here we have again the calm placing of Himself on a 
level with the Father in connection with eternal life. And 
it is not out of place to recall the consistency of this utterance 
with that often-called ''Johannine" saying recorded in St. 
Matthew and St. Luke: "All things are delivered unto Me 
of My Father : and no man knoweth the Son, but the Father ; 
neither knoweth any man the Father, save the Son, and he 
to whomsoever the Son willeth to reveal Him." 

We read also in St. John 14:6: "No man cometh unto 

22 The Fundamentals 

the Father but by Me". And as we reverently proceed further 
in the prayer we find Him saying: "And now, O Father, 
glorify Thou Me with Thine own self, with the glory which 
I had with Thee before the world was." 

These words are natural to the Father's Son as we know 
and worship Him, but they are beyond the reach of an unin- 
spired man, and who can imagine a forger inspired of the 
Holy Ghost? Such words would, however, be graven upon 
the very heart of an ear-witness such as the disciple whom 
Jesus loved. 

We have in this prayer also the fuller revelation of the 
"one flock" and "one Shepherd" pictured in chapter ten: 
"Neither pray I for these alone, but for them also which 
shall believe on Me through their word; that they all may 
be one; as Thou, Father, art in Me, and I in Thee, that they 
also may be one in us: That the world may believe that Thou 
hast sent Me. And the glory which Thou gavest Me I have 
given them; that they may be one, even as we are one: I in 
them, and Thou in Me, that they may be perfected into one; 
and that the world may know that Thou hast sent Me, and 
hast loved them, as Thou hast loved Me." 

In these holy words there breathes a cry for such a unity 
as never entered into the heart of mortal man to dream of. 
It is no cold and formal ecclesiastical unity, such as that 
suggested by the curious and unhappy mistranslation of "one 
fold" for "one flock" in St. John 10 : 16. It is the living 
unity of the living flock with the living Shepherd of the 
living God. It is actually the same as the unity subsisting 
between the Father and the Son. And according to St. Paul 
in Rom. 8 : 19, the creation is waiting for its revelation. The 
one Shepherd has from the beginning had His one flock in 
answer to His prayer, but the world has not yet seen it, and 
is therefore still unconvinced that our Jesus is indeed the 
Sent of God. The world has seen the Catholic Church and 
the Roman Catholic Church, but the Holy Catholic Church 

The Internal Evidence of the Fourth Gospel 23 

no eye as yet has seen but God's. For the Holy Catholic 
Church and the Shepherd's one flock are one and the same, 
and the world will not see either "till He come." The Holy 
Catholic Church is an object of faith and not of sight, and 
so is the one flock. In spite of all attempts at elimination 
and organization wheat and tares together grow, and sheep 
and wolves-in-sheep's-clothing are found together in the 
earthly pasture grounds. But when the Good Shepherd 
returns He will bring His beautiful flock with Him, and 
eventually the world will see and believe. "O the depth 
of the riches both of the wisdom and knowledge of God! 
How unsearchable are His judgments, and His ways past 
finding out!" 

The mystery of this spiritual unity lies hidden in the high- 
priestly prayer, but we may feel sure that no forger could 
ever discover it, for many of those who profess and call 
themselves Christians are blind to it even yet. 

4. The "Christ before Pilate" of St. John is also stamped 
with every mark of sincerity and truth. What mere human 
imagination could evolve the noble words: "My kingdom 
is not of this world; if My kingdom were of this world, then 
would My servants fight, that I should not be delivered to 
the Jews: but now is My kingdom not from hence . . . 
To this end was I born, and for this cause came I into the 
world, that I should bear witness unto the truth. Every one 
that is of the truth heareth My voice" ? 

The whole wondrous story of the betrayal, the denial, the 
trial, the condemnation and crucifixion of the Lord Jesus, as 
given through St. John, breathes with the living sympathy 
of an eye-witness. The account, moreover, is as wonderful 
in the delicacy of its reserve as in the simplicity of its recital. 
It is entirely free from sensationalism and every form of 
exaggeration. It is calm and judicial in the highest degree. 
If it is written by the inspired disciple whom Jesus loved, all 
is natural and easily "understanded of the people"; while on 

24 The Fundamentals 

any other supposition, it is fraught with difficulties that can- 
not be explained away. "I am not credulous enough to be 
an unbeliever," is a wise saying in this as in many similar 

5. The Gospel opens and closes with surpassing grandeur. 
With Divine dignity it links itself with the opening words of 
Genesis: "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word 
was with God, and the Word was God. . . . And the 
Word became flesh, and dwelt among us, and we beheld His 
glory, the glory as of the Only Begotten of the Father, full 
of grace and truth." What a lifelike contrast with this sublime 
description is found in the introduction of John the Baptist: 
"There came a man sent from God whose name was John". 
In the incarnation Christ did not become a man but man. 
Moreover in this St. Paul and St. John are in entire agree- 

"There is one God", says St. Paul to Timothy; "one 
Mediator also between God and man — Himself Man — Christ 
Jesus." The reality of the Divine Redeemer's human nature 
is beautifully manifested in the touching interview between 
the weary Saviour and the guilty Samaritan woman at the 
well ; as also in His perfect human friendship with Mary and 
Martha and their brother Lazarus, culminating- in the price- 
less words, "Jesus wept". 

And so by the bitter way of the Cross the grandeur of 
the incarnation passes into the glory of the resurrection. The 
last two chapters are alive with thrilling incident. If any one 
wishes to form a true conception of what those brief chapters 
contain, let him read "Jesus and the Resurrection," by the 
saintly Bishop of Durham (Dr. Handley Moule) and his cup 
of holy joy will fill to overflowing. At the empty tomb we 
breathe the air of the unseen kingdom, and presently we gaze 
enraptured on the face of the Crucified but risen and ever- 
living King. Mary Magdalene, standing in her broken-hearted 
despair, is all unconscious of the wondrous fact that holy 

The Internal Evidence of the Fourth Gospel 25 

angels are right in front of her and standing behind her is her 
living Lord and Master. Slowly but surely the glad story 
spreads from lip to lip and heart to heart, until even the 
honest but stubborn Thomas is brought to his knees, crying in 
a burst of remorseful, adoring joy, "My Lord and my God !" 

Then comes the lovely story of the fruitless all-night toil 
of the seven fishermen, the appearance at dawn of the 
Stranger on the beach, the miraculous draught of fishes, the 
glad cry of recognition, "It is the Lord!" the never-to-be- 
forgotten breakfast with the risen Saviour, and His searching 
interview with Peter, passing into the mystery of St. John's 
old age. 

In all these swiftly-drawn outlines we feel ourselves 
instinctively in the presence of the truth. We are crowned 
with the Saviour's beatitude: "Blessed are they that have 
not seen, and yet have believed," and we are ready to yield 
a glad assent to the statement which closes chapter twenty: 
"Many other signs truly did Jesus in the presence of His 
disciples, which are not written in this book; but these are 
written that ye might believe that Jesus is the Christ, the 
Son of God; and that believing ye might have life in His 



BY THOMAS BOSTON (1676-1732) 

I. For the better understanding of the nature of regen- 
eration, take this along with you, in the first place, that as 
there are false conceptions in nature, so there are also in 
grace: by these many are deluded, mistaking some partial 
changes made upon them for this great and thorough change. 
To remove such mistakes, let these few things be considered : 

1. Many call the Church their mother, whom God will 
not own to be His children. "My mother's children," that is, 
false brethren, "were angry with me" (Cant. 1:6). All that 
are baptized, are not born again. Simon was baptized, yet 
still "in the gall of bitterness, and in the bond of iniquity" 
(Acts 8:13-23). Where Christianity is the religion of the 
country, many are called by the name of Christ, who have no 
more of Him than the name: and no wonder, for the devil 
had his goats among Christ's sheep, in those places where but 
few professed the Christian religion. "They went out from 
us, but they were not of us" (1 John 2: 19). 

2. Good education is not regeneration. Education may 
chain up men's lusts, but cannot change their hearts. A wolf 
is still a ravenous beast, though it be in chains. Joash was 
very devout during the life of his good tutor Jehoiada; 
but afterwards he quickly showed what spirit he was of, by 
his sudden apostasy (2 Chron. 24:2-18). Good example 
is of mighty influence to change the outward man; but 
that change often goes off when a man changes his company ; 
of which the world affords many sad instances. 

3. A turning from open profanity to civility and sobriety 
falls short of this saving change. Some are, for a while, very 


The Nature of Regeneration 27 

loose, especially in their younger years; but at length they 
reform, and leave their profane courses. Here is a change, 
yet only such as may be found in men utterly void of the 
grace of God, and whose righteousness is so far from exceed- 
ing, that it does not come up to the righteousness of the scribes 
and Pharisees. 

4. One may engage in all the outward duties of religion, 
and yet not be born again. Though lead be cast into various 
shapes, it remains still but a base metal. Men may escape 
the pollutions of the world, and yet be but dogs and swine 
(2 Pet. 2: 20-22). All the external acts of religion are within 
the compass of natural abilities. Yea, hypocrites may have the 
counterfeit of all the graces of the Spirit: for we read of 
"true holiness" (Eph. 4:23) ; and "faith unfeigned" (1 Tim. 
1:15); which shows us that there is a counterfeit holiness, 
and a feigned faith. 

5. Men may advance to a great deal of strictness in their 
own way of religion, and yet be strangers to the new birth. 
"After the most straitest sect of our religion I lived a Phari- 
see" (Acts 26: 5). Nature has its own unsanctified strictness 
in religion. The Pharisees had so much of it that they looked 
on Christ as little better than a mere libertine. A man whose 
conscience has been awakened, and who lives under the felt 
influence of the covenant of works, what will he not do that 
is within the compass of natural abilities? It is a truth, 
though it came out of a hellish mouth, that "skin for skin, all 
that a man hath will he give for his life" (Job 2:4). 

6. A person may have sharp soul-exercises and pangs, 
and yet die in the birth. Many "have been in pain," that have 
but, as it were, "brought forth wind." There may be sore 
pangs and throes of conscience, which turn to nothing at last. 
Pharaoh and Simon Magus had such convictions as made them 
desire the prayers of others for them. Judas repented him- 
self ; and under terrors of conscience, gave back his ill-gotten 
pieces of silver. All is not gold that glitters. Trees may bios- 

28 The Fundamentals 

som fairly in the spring, on which no fruit is to be found in 
the harvest: and some have sharp soul exercises, which are 
nothing but foretastes of hell. 

The new birth, however in appearance hopefully begun, 
may be marred two ways: First, Some, like Zarah (Gen. 
38 : 28, 29), are brought to the birth, but go back again. They 
have sharp convictions for a while ; but these go off, and they 
become as careless about their salvation, and as profane as 
ever and usually worse than ever; "their last state is worse 
than their first" (Matt. 12:45). They get awakening grace, 
but not converting grace and that goes off by degrees, as the 
light of the declining day, till it issue in midnight darkness. 

Secondly, Some, like Ishmael, come forth too soon; they 
are born before the time of the promise. (Gen. 16:2; com- 
pare Gal. 4:22, etc.) They take up with a mere law-work, 
and stay not till the time of the promise of the Gospel. They 
snatch at consolation, not waiting till it be given them; and 
foolishly draw their comfort from the law that wounded them. 
They apply the healing plaster to themselves, before their 
wound is sufficiently searched. The law, that rigorous hus- 
band, severely beats them, and throws in curses and vengeance 
upon their souls ; then they fall to reforming, praying, mourn- 
ing, promising, and vowing, till this ghost be laid ; which done, 
they fall asleep again in the arms of the law: but they are 
never shaken out of themselves and their own righteousness, 
nor brought forward to Jesus Christ. 

Lastly, There may be a wonderful moving of the affec- 
tions, in souls that are not at all touched with regenerating 
grace. Where there is no grace, there may, notwithstanding, 
be a flood of tears, as in Esau, "who found no place of re- 
pentance, though he sought it carefully with tears" (Heb. 
12: 17). There may be great flashes of joy; as in the hearers 
of the Word, represented in the parable by the stony ground, 
who "anon with joy receive it" (Matt. 13:20). There may 
also be great desires after good things, and great delight in 

The Nature of Regeneration 29 

them too ; as in those hypocrites described in Isa. 58 : 2 : "Yet 
they seek Me daily, and deHght to know My ways : they take 
deHght in approaching to God." See how high they may some- 
times stand, who yet fall away (Heb. 6:4-6). They may be 
"enlightened, taste of the heavenly gift," be "partakers of the 
Holy Ghost, taste the good Word of God, and the powers of 
the world to come." Common operations of the Divine Spirit, 
like a land flood, make a strange turning of things upside 
down: but when they are over, all runs again in the ordinary 
channel. All these things may be, where the sanctifying Spirit 
of Christ never rests upon the soul, but the stony heart still 
remains; and in that case these affections cannot but wither, 
because they have no root. 

But regeneration is a real thorough change, whereby the 
man is made a new creature. (2 Cor. 5 : 17.) The Lord God 
makes the creature a new creature, as the goldsmith melts 
down the vessel of dishonor, and makes it a vessel of honor. 
Man is, in respect of his spiritual state, altogether disjointed 
by the fall ; every faculty of the soul is, as it were, dislocated : 
in regeneration the Lord loosens every joint, and sets it right 
again. Now this change made in regeneration, is : 

1. A change of qualities or dispositions', it is not a change 
of the substance, but of the qualities of the soul. Vicious 
qualities are removed,and the contrary dispositions are brought 
in, in their room. "The old man is put off" (Eph. 4:22); 
"the new man put on" (ver. 24). Man lost none of the ra- 
tional faculties of his soul by sin: he had an understanding 
still, but it was darkened; he had still a will, but it was con- 
trary to the will of God. So in regeneration, there is not a 
new substance created, but new qualities are infused; light 
instead of darkness, righteousness instead of unrighteousness. 

2. It is a supernatural change; he that is born again, is 
born of the Spirit. (John 3 : 5.) Great changes may be made 
by the power of nature, especially when assissted^by external 
revelation. Nature may be so elevated by the common in- 

30 The Fundamentals 

fluences of the Spirit, that a person may thereby be turned 
into another man, as Saul was, (1 Sam. 10:6,) who yet never 
becomes a new man. But in regeneration, nature itself is 
changed, and we become partakers of the Divine nature; and 
this must needs be a supernatural change. How can we, that 
are dead in trespasses and sins, renew ourselves, more than 
a dead man can raise himself out of his grave? Who but the 
sanctifying Spirit of Christ can form Christ in a soul, chang- 
ing it into the same image? Who but the Spirit of sanctifica- 
tion can give the new heart? Well may we say, when we see 
a man thus changed : "This is the finger of God." 

3. It is a change into the likeness of God. "We, behold- 
ing, as in a glass, the glory of the Lord, are changed into the 
same image" (2 Cor. 3:18). Everything that generates, 
generates its like ; the child bears the image of the parent ; and 
they that are born of God, bear God's image. Man aspiring 
to be as God, made himself like the devil. In his natural 
state he resembles the devil, as a child doth his father. "Ye 
are of your father the devil" (John 8:44). But when this 
happy change comes, that image of Satan is defaced, and the 
image of God is restored. Christ Himself, who is the bright- 
ness of His Father's glory, is the pattern after which the new 
creature is made. "For whom He did foreknow. He also did 
predestinate, to be conformed to the image of His Son" (Rom. 
8 : 29). Hence He is said to be formed in the regenerate. (Gal. 

4. It is a universal change; "all things become new," (2 
Cor. 5: 17). Original sin infects the whole man; and regen- 
erating grace, which is the salve, goes as far as the sore. This 
fruit of the Spirit is in all goodness ; goodness of the mind, good- 
ness of the will, goodness of the affections, goodness of the 
whole man. He gets not only a new head, to know religion, or 
a new tongue to talk of it ; but a new heart, to love and embrace it 
in the whole of his conversation. 




Author of "Theology for Plain People" 

In his "Twice-Born Men," Mr. Harold Begbie gives us a 
series of instances wherein men of the lowest grade, or the 
most perverse nature, became suddenly changed in thought, 
purpose, will and life. Without intentionally ignoring the 
word "regeneration," or the fact of regeneration, he em- 
phasises the act of conversion in which he includes regenera- 
tion which, in our conception, is the origin of conversion and 
a true reformation as a permanent fact. A weakness in much 
of the teaching of modern times is in that conversion and 
reformation are thrust to the front, while regeneration is either 
ignored, or minimized to nothingness. 

Jesus Christ did not say much about regeneration, using 
the equivalent word in the Greek {p dig gene sis) only once, 
and then (Matt. 19:28) having reference to created things, a 
new order in the physical universe, rather than to a new con- 
dition of the individual soul. But He taught the great truth 
in other words, the needful fact by which He made it evident 
that a regeneration is what the human soul needs and must 
have to fit it for the kingdom of God. 

In the other Gospels, Jesus is represented as teaching 
things which involve a new birth, without which it is impos- 
sible to meet Divine requirements; but in John's Gospel it is 
distinctly set forth in the very first chapter, and the idea is 
carried through to the end. When (in John 1 : 12, 13) it is 
said that those who received the Word of God received also 
"power," or right, to become God's children, it is expressly 


32 The Fundamentals 

declared that this power, or right, is not inherent in human 
nature, is not found in the natural birth, but involves a new 
birth — "who are born not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, 
nor of the will of man, but of God." It is this new or second 
birth which produces children of God. The declaration of 
John (3:3) puts to confusion the very common claim that 
God is the Father of universal humanity, and makes it absurd 
to talk of "the Fatherhood of God," "the Heavenly Father," 
"the Divine Fatherhood," and other such phrases with which 
we are surfeited in these modern days. Nothing is farther 
from truth, and nothing is more dangerous and seductive than 
the claim that the children of Adam are, by nature, God's chil- 
dren. It is the basis of much false reasoning with regard to 
the future state and the continuity of future punishment. It is 
said, in words, that, though a father may chastise his son, "for 
his profit," yet the relation of fatherhood and sonship forbids 
the thought that the father can thrust his son into the burning 
and keep him there forever. No matter what the offense, it 
can be expiated by suffering, the father heart will certainly 
relent and the prodigal will turn again and will be received 
with joy and gladness by the yearning father. 

Of course, the fallacy of the argument is in the assumption 
that all men are, by nature, the children of God a thing ex- 
pressly denied by the Lord Jesus (John 8:42) who declared 
to certain ones that they were of their father the devil. The 
conversation with Nicodemus gives us the condition upon 
which once-born men may see the kingdom of God, namely, 
by being twice-born, once of the flesh, and a second time of the 
Spirit. "Except a man be born again [anothen, from above] 
he cannot see the kingdom of God." There must be a birth 
from heaven before there can be a heavenly inheritance. 
Nicodemus, though a teacher of Israel, did not understand 
it. He had read in vain the word throup'h Jeremiah (33: 31) 
relative to the "new covenant" which involves a new heart 
He had failed to discern between the natural man and the 

Regeneration — Conversion — Reformation 33 

spiritual man. He had no conception of a changed condition 
as the basis of genuine reformation. But Nicodemus was not 
alone in his misconception. After all these centuries, many 
students of the New Testament, accepting the Gospel of John 
as canonical and genuine, stumble over the same great truth 
and "pervert the right ways of the Lord." Taking the fifth 
verse of John 3, they accept the doctrine of regeneration, but 
couple it with an external act without which, in their view, 
the regeneration is not and cannot be completed. In their 
rituals they distinctly declare that water baptism is essential 
to and is productive of the regeneration which Jesus declares 
must be from heaven. They stumble over, or pervert the 
words used, and make "born of water" to be baptism, of 
which nothing is said in the verse or in the chapter, and which 
the whole tenor of Scripture denies. 

The lexicographers, the grammarians and evangelical the- 
ologians are afl pronounced against the interpretation put upon 
the words of Jesus when He said : "Except a man [any one] 
be born of water kai spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom 
of God." The lexicographers tell us that the conjunction kai 
(Greek) may have an epexegetical meaning and may be (as it 
frequently is) used to amplify what has gone before; that it 
may have the sense of "even," or "namely." And thus they 
justify the reading: "Except a man be born of water, even 
for namely] spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God." 
The grammarians tell us the same thing, and innumerable in- 
stances of such usage can be cited from both classic and New 
Testament Greek. The theologians are explicit in their denial 
that regeneration can be effected by baptism. They hold to a 
purely spiritual experience, either before baptism, or after 
it, and deny that the spiritual birth is effected by the water, 
no matter how applied. And yet some who take this position 
in discussions of the "new birth" fall away to the ritualistic 
idea when they come to treat of baptism, its significance and 
place in the Christian system. (It would be easy to justify all 

34 The Fundamentals 

these statements by reference to authors and books, but space 
forbids the quotations here. So patent are they that we can 
hardly doubt the acceptance of the assertion by the intelligent 
reader, without citations in proof.) 


The best interpreter of Jesus who ever undertook to rep- 
resent Him was the man who was made a "chosen vessel," 
to bear the Gospel of the kingdom to the pagan nations of his 
own time, and to transmit his interpretations to us of the 
twentieth century. He could say: "The Gospel which was 
preached of me is not after man, neither was I taught it, but 
by revelation of Jesus Christ." And Paul speaks of this work 
wrought in the human soul as a "new creation" — something 
that was not there before. "If any man be in Christ, he is a 
new creature" (creation). "Neither circumcision availeth 
anything, nor uncircumcision, but a new creature" (creation). 
Never once, in all his discussions of the way of salvation, does 
Paul intimate that the new creation is effected by a ritual 
observance. It is always and everywhere regarded and treated 
as a spiritual experience wrought by the Spirit of God, the 
subject of it knowing only, as the healed man said of himself, 
"Whereas I was blind now I see." 


The prayers of the Bible, especially those of the New Testa- 
ment, do not indicate that the suppliant asks for a regenera- 
tion — a new heart. He may have been taught the need of it, 
and may be brought face to face with the great and decisive 
fact; but his thought is not so much of a new heart as it is 
of his sins and his condemnation. What he wants is deliver- 
ance from the fact and the consequences of sin. He finds him- 
self a condemned sinner, under the frown of a God of justice, 
and he despairs. But he is told of Jesus and the forgiving 
grace of God, and he asks that the gracious provision be ap- 

Regeneration — Conversion — Reformation 35 

plied to his own soul. "Mercy, and not sacrifice," is the argu- 
ment, the mercy secured by the work of Him whom God hath 
appointed to be the propitiation for our sins. But when the 
supplicating and believing sinner awakes to a consciousness 
that his prayer has been heard, he finds that he is a new 
creature. The work has been wrought without his conscious- 
ness of it at the moment. .,A11 he knows is that something has 
taken place within him — a great "change." He is a new 
creature. He dares to hope and to believe that he is a son 
of God; and he cries in the ecstacy of a new life: "Abba, 
Father" (Dear Father) ! "The Spirit Himself beareth wit- 
ness with our spirit that we are the children of God," and 
subsequently we learn that we are heirs of a rich Father — 
"heirs of God and joint-heirs with Jesus Christ," with whom 
we are to both suffer and reign. 

CONVERSION (which really means only "change"), we 
have said, is included in the idea of regeneration; but the 
words do not mean the same thing. Regeneration implies con- 
version; but there may be conversion without regeneration. 
The danger is that the distinction may not be observed and 
that, because there is a visible conversion, it may be supposed 
that there must be a prevenient regeneration. Conversion may 
be a mere mental process; the understanding convinced, but 
the heart unchanged. It may be effected as education and 
refinement are effected. The schools are constantly doing it. 
It is what they are for. Regeneration involves a change of 
mind; but conversion may be effected while the moral condi- 
tion remains unchanged. Regeneration can occur but once in 
the experience of the same soul; but conversion can occur 
many times. Regeneration implies a new life, eternal life. 
Divine life, the life of God in the soul of man, a Divine son- 
ship, the continuous indwelling of the Holy Spirit. Conversion 
may be like that of King Saul, when he took a place among the 
prophets of Jehovah, or like that of Simon the sorcerer, who 

36 The Fundamentals 

said: "Pray ye the Lord for me, that none of these things 
which ye have spoken come upon me." 

Conversion may be the result of a conviction that, after 
all, a change of life may be profitable for the life that is to 
come, as well as for the life that now is ; that in the future 
world a man gets what he earns in this life. It does not imply 
a heart in love with God and the things of God. Men of the 
world are converted many times. They change their minds, 
and often change their mode of living, for the better; not be- 
cause they have been regenerated and brought into sacred 
relations with God in Christ, being renewed by the power of 
the Holy Spirit. 

One of the most imminent dangers of the religious life of 
today is the putting of conversion in the place of regenera- 
tion, and counting converted men as Christian men, counting 
"converts" in revival meetings as regenerated and saved, be- 
cause they have mentally, and, for the moment, changed. Men 
are converted, politically, from one party to another; from 
one set of principles to another. Christians, after regenera- 
tion, may change their religious views and pass from one 
denomination to another. Few Christians pass through many 
years without a need of conversion. They grow cold of heart, 
blind to the things of God, and wander from the straight path 
to which they once committed themselves ; and they need con- 
version. Most revivals of religion begin with the conversion 
of saints. Rarely are souls, in considerable numbers, regen- 
erated while regenerated men and women are unconscious of 
their high calling and are in need of conversion, in order to 
their hearty engagement in efforts for those around them. 
First, a converted church, then regenerated and converted 

REFORMATION implies conversion, but it does not im- 
ply regeneration. Regeneration insures reformation, but ref- 
ormation does not imply regeneration. Reformers have been 
abroad in all ages, and are known to paganism as well as to 

Regeneration — Conversion — Reformation 37 

Christianity. The Buddha was a reformer. Gonfucius was a 
reformer. Zoroaster was a reformer. Mahomet was a reformer. 
Kings and priests have been reformers, while knowing nothing 
of the life of God in the human soul. A Christian man is a 
reformed man, though his reformation may be far from com- 
plete and may need a great many reforming impulses. The 
most glaring and fatal mistake in the religious world today is 
the effort to reform men and reform society by making the 
reformation a substitute for regeneration. 

The social life of today is full of devices and expedients 
for bettering the physical condition of individuals, families 
and communities, while yet the soul-life is untouched. Human 
devices are taking the place of the Divine ideal, and those who 
cannot reach the inner life are contenting themselves, if they 
can reach and better the outer life, the mere incident of being. 
We have civic organizations without number, each of which 
has for its highest object the betterment not simply of worldly 
conditions, but of the character of the brotherhood. An argu- 
ment for the existence of many of these organizations is that 
they may make better men by reason of the confidence and 
fraternity secured by the contact effected, by the oaths and 
vows taken, and by the cultivation of the social life. A will- 
ingness to learn and to receive instruction is a condition of 
initiation, into the order. 

That reformatory agencies are good and accomplish good 
is not denied. Each has its good points and helps to elevate 
the tone of society in the aggregate. But a fatal mistake is 
in the notion that the elevation of society, the eliminating 
of its miseries, is conducive to a religious life and promotive 
of Christianity. Perhaps the greatest hindrances to the con- 
quest sought by Christianity today, in civilized and nominally 
Christian countries, are the various agencies intended to 
reform society. They are improving the exterior, veneering 
and polishing the outside, while the inside is no better than 
before because the heart remains wicked and sinful. "Now 

38 The Fundamentals 

do ye Pharisees make clean the outside of the cup and the 
platter, but your inward part is full of ravening and wicked- 

The Pharisees were the best people of their day; and yet 
they were the greatest failures. Against no others did Jesus 
hurl so fierce denunciations. Why ? Because they put reforma- 
tion in the place of repentance and faith; because they were 
employing human means for accomplishing what only the 
Holy Spirit could accomplish. And so, today, every device 
for the betterment of society which does not strike at the 
root of the disease and apply the remedy to the seat of life, 
the human soul, is Pharisaical and is doing a Pharisee's work. 
It is polishing the outside, while indifferent to the inside. 
The road to hell from a church door is as short as is that 
from a hangman's noose, or an electric chair. More church 
members than murderers have gone to the hell of the 
unbeliever. "The good is always the enemy of the best"; 
and so reformation is always an enemy of the cross of Christ. 

*Mr. Begbie's "twice-born men" were reformed, and they 
made proof of it in their subsequent lives because they were 
regenerated, twice born ; but there were beside them, a great 
multitude of "reformed" men, who were no less heirs of hell 
than before their "reformation." He tells us of only a few 
of the great multitude of those reformed — a few of thou- 

Fundamental to the Christian system is a conviction of 
sin which compels a cry for mercy, responded to by the Holy 
Spirit, who regenerates the soul, converts it, reforms it and 
fits it for the blessedness of heaven. 

*By reference to Mr. Begbie's book, the writer meafts no criti- 
cism, for he is in full accord with the facts and purposes of the 
book. He uses it only as a striking illustration of the point he 
wishes to make. 




Our Lord's teachings as to money gifts, if obeyed, would 
forever banish all limitations on church work and all con- 
cern about supplies. These teachings are radical and revolu- 
tionary. So far are they from practical acceptance that, 
although perfectly explicit, they seem more like a dead lan- 
guage that has passed out of use than like a living tongue 
that millions know and speak. Yet, when these principles 
and precepts of our Lord on giving are collated and com- 
pared, they are found to contain the materials of a complete 
ethical system on the subject of money, its true nature, value, 
relation and use. Should these sublime and unique teachings 
be translated into living, the effect not only upon benevolent 
work, but upon our whole spiritual character, would be incal- 
culable. Brevity compels us to be content with a simple 
outline of this body of teaching, scattered through the four 
Gospel narratives, but gathered up and methodically presented 
by Paul in that exhaustive discussion of Christian giving in 
2 Cor. 8 and 9. 


The basis of Christ's teaching about money is the funda- 
mental conception of stewardship. (Luke 12:42; 16:1-8.) 
Not only money, but every gift of God, is received in trust 
for His use. Man is not an owner, but a trustee, managing 
another's goods and estates, God being the one original and 
inalienable Owner of all. The two things required of stewards 
are that they be "faithful and wise," that they study to employ 
God's gifts with fidelity and sagacity — fidelity so that God's 


40 The Fundamentals 

entrustments be not perverted to self-indulgence; sagacity, so 
that they be converted into as large gains as possible. 

This is a perfectly plain and simple basal principle, yet it 
is not the accepted foundation of our money-making and 
using. The vast majority, even of disciples, practically leave 
God out of their thoughts when they engage in finance. Men 
consider themselves owners; they "make money" by their 
industry, economy, shrewdness, application; it is theirs to do 
as they will with it. There is little or no sense of stewardship 
or of its implied obligation. If they give, it is an act, not of 
duty, but of generosity; it ranks, not under law, but under 
grace. Hence there is no inconsistency felt in hoarding or 
spending vast sums for worldly ends and appropriating an 
insignificant fraction to benevolent purposes. Such methods 
and notions would be utterly turned upside down could men 
but think of themselves as stewards, accountable to the one 
Master for having wasted His goods. The great day of 
account will bring an awful reckoning, not only to wasters, but 
to hoarders ; for even the unfaithful servants brought back to 
their lord the talent and the pound at last, but without profit, 
and the condemnation was for not having used so as to 
increase the entrusted goods. 


In our Lord's teachings we find this kindred principle of 
investment: "Thou oughtest to have put my money to the 
exchangers" (Matt. 25:27). Money-changing and investing 
is an old business. The "exchangers," as Luke renders, are 
the bankers, the ancient Trapezitae, who received money on 
deposit and paid interest for its use, like modern savings insti- 
tutions. The argument of our Lord refutes the unfaithful 
servant on his own plea, which his course showed to be not 
an excuse, but a pretext. It was true that he dared not risk 
trading on his own account; why not, without such risk, get 
a moderate interest for his Master by lending to professional 

Our Lord's Teachings About Money 41 

traders ? It was not fear but sloth that lay behind his unfaith- 
fulness and unprofitableness. 

Thus indirectly is taught the valuable lesson that timid 
souls, unfitted for bold and independent service in behalf of 
the kingdom, may link their incapacity to the capacity and 
sagacity of others who will make their gifts and possessions 
of use to the Master and His Church. 

James Watt, in 1773, formed a partnership with Matthew 
Boulton, of Soho, for the manufacture of steam engines — 
Watt, to furnish brains, and Boulton, hard cash. This illus- 
trates our Lord's teaching. The steward has money, or it 
may be other gifts, that can be made of use, but he lacks faith 
and foresight, practical energy and wisdom. The Lord's 
"exchangers" can show him how to get gain for the Master. 
The Church boards are God's bankers. They are composed 
of practical men, who study how and where to put money for 
the best results and largest returns, and when they are what 
they ought to be, they multiply money many-fold in glorious 
results. The Church partly exists that the strength of one 
member may help the weakness of another, and that by 
co-operation of all, the power of the least and weakest may 
be increased. 


Another most important principle is the subordination of 
money, as emphatically taught and illustrated in the rich young 
ruler. (Matt. 19:16-26.) This narrative, rightly regarded, 
presents no enigma. With all his attractive traits, this man 
was a slave. Money was not his servant, but his master; and 
because God alone is to be supreme, our Lord had no alter- 
native. He must demolish this man's idol, and when He 
dealt a blow at his money, the idolatry became apparent, and 
the slave of greed went away sorrowful, clinging to his idol. 
It was not the man's having great possessions that was wrong, 
but that his possessions had the man ; they possessed him and 

42 The Fundamentals 

controlled him. He was so far the slave of money that he 
could not and would not accept freedom by the breaking of 
its fetters. His "trust" was in riches — how could it be in 
God? Behind all disguises of respectability and refinement, 
God sees many a man to be an abject slave, a victim held 
in bonds by love of money; but covetousness is idolatry, and 
no idolater can enter the kingdom of God. How few rich 
men keep the mastery and hold money as their servant, in 
absolute subordination to their own manhood, and the master- 
hood of the Lord! 


We ascend a step higher, and consider our Lord's teaching 
as to the law of recompense. "Give, and it shall be given 
unto you" (Luke 6:38). We are taught that getting is in 
order to giving, and consequently that giving is the real road 
to getting. God is an economist. He entrusts larger gifts 
to those who use the smaller well. Perhaps one reason of our 
poverty is that we are so far slaves of parsimony. The future 
may reveal that God has been withholding from us because 
we have been withholding from Him. 

It can scarcely be said by any careful student of the New 
Testament that our Lord encourages His disciples to look 
or ask for earthly wealth. Yet it is equally certain that 
hundreds of devout souls who have chosen voluntary poverty 
for His sake have been entrusted with immense sums for His 
work. George Miiller conducted for over sixty years enter- 
prises requiring at least some hundred and twenty-five thou- 
sand dollars a year. Note also the experiences of William 
Quarrier and Hudson Taylor, and D. L. Moody and Dr. 
Barnardo. Such servants of God, holding all as God's, spend- 
ing little or nothing for self, were permitted to receive and 
use millions for God, and in some cases, like Miiller's, with- 
out any appeal to men, looking solely to God. This great 
saint of Bristol found, in a life that nearly rounded out a 

Our Lord's Teachings About Money 43 

century, that it was safe to give to God's purposes the last 
penny at any moment, with the perfect assurance that more 
would come in before another need should arise. And there 
was never one failure for seventy years! 


Kindred to this law of recompense is the law of superior 
blessedness. "It is more blessed to give than to receive" (Acts 
20:35). Paul quotes this as a saying of our Lord, but it is 
not to be found in either of the Gospel narratives. Whether 
he meant only to indicate what is substantially our Lord's 
teaching, or was preserving some precious words of our 
Great Teacher, otherwise unrecorded, is not important. It 
is enough that this saying has the authority of Christ. What- 
ever the blessedness of receiving, that of giving belongs to a 
higher plane. Whatever I get, and whatever good it brings 
to me, I only am benefited; but what I give brings good to 
others — to the many, not the one. But, by a singular decree 
of God, what I thus surrender for myself for the sake of 
others comes back even to me in larger blessing. It is like 
the moisture which the spring gives out in streams and evap- 
oration, returning in showers to supply the very channels 
which filled the spring itself. 


We rise a step higher in considering God's law of compu- 
tation. How does He reckon gifts? Our Lord teaches us 
that it is by comparison. No one narrative is more telling 
on this theme than that of the poor widow* who dropped into 
the treasury her two mites. The Lord Jesus, standing near, 
watched the offerings cast into the treasury. There were rich 
givers that gave large amounts. There was one poor woman, 
a widow, who threw in two mites, and He declared her offer- 
ing to be more than any of all the rest, because, while they 

*Mark 12:41-44; Luke 21:1-4. 

44 The Fundamentals 

gave out of a superfluity she gave out of a deficiency — they 
of their abundance, she of her poverty. 

She who cast her two mites into the sacred treasury, by 
so doing became rich in good works and in the praise of 
God. Had she kept them she had been still only the same 
poor widow. Are not two sparrows sold for a farthing ? And 
the two mites "make a farthing." He who, as the Superin- 
tending Providence of nature, watches the fall of a sparrow, 
so that "one of them is not forgotten before God," also, as 
the Overseer of the treasury, invisibly sits and watches the 
gifts that are dropped into the chest, and even the widow's 
mite is not forgotten. 

He tells us here how He estimates money gifts — not by 
what we give, but by what we keep — not by the amount of 
our contributions, but by their cost in self-denial. This 
widow's whole offering counted financially for but a farth- 
ing (KoSpavrrj^, a quadrant, equal to four mills, or two fifths 
of a cent, as three- fourths of an English farthing). What 
could be much more insignificant? But the two mites con- 
stituted her whole means of subsistence. The others reserved 
what they needed or wanted for themselves, and then gave 
out of their superabundance {wipuTaevovTos) . The contrast is 
emphatic; she "out of her deficiency," they "out of their 

Not all giving — so-called — has rich reward. In many cases 
the keeping hides the giving, in the sight of God. Self-indul- 
gent hoarding and spending spread a banquet ; the crumbs fall 
from the table, to be gathered up and labeled "charity." But 
when the one possession that is dearest, the last trusted re- 
source, is surrendered to God, then comes the vision of the 
treasure laid up in heaven. 


We ascend still higher to the law of unselfishness in giving. 
"Do good and lend, hoping for nothing again" (Luke 6: 35). 

Our Lord's Teachings About Money 45 

Much giving is not giving at all, but only lending or exchang- 
ing. He who gives to another of whom he expects to receive 
as much again, is trading. He is seeking gain, and is selfish. 
What he is after is not another's profit, but his own advantage. 
To invite to one's table those who will invite him again, is 
simply as if a kindness were done, to a business acquaintance 
as a basis for boldness in asking a similar favor when needed. 
This is reciprocity, and may be even mean and calculating. 

True giving has another's good solely in view, and hence 
bestows upon those who cannot and will not repay, who are 
too destitute to pay back, and too degraded, perhaps, to appre- 
ciate what is done for them. That is like God's giving to the 
evil and unthankful. That is the giving prompted by love. 

To ask, therefore, "Will it pay ?" betrays the selfish spirit. 
He is the noblest, truest giver who thinks only of the blessing 
he can bring to another's body and soul. He casts his bread- 
seed beside all waters. He hears the cry of want and woe, 
and is concerned only to supply the want and assuage the woe. 
This sort of giving shows God-likeness, and by it we grow 
into the perfection of benevolence. 


Our Lord announces also a law of sanctification. "The 
altar sanctifieth the gift" — association gives dignity to an 
offering (Matt. 23: 19). If the cause to which we contribute 
is exalted it ennobles and exalts the offering to its own plane. 
No two objects can or ought to appeal to us with equal force 
unless they are equal in moral worth and dignity, and a discern- 
ing giver will respond most to what is worthiest. God's altar 
was to the Jew the central focus of all gifts ; it was associated 
with His worship, and the whole calendar of fasts and feasts 
moved round it. The gift laid upon it acquired a new dignity 
by so being deposited upon it. Some objects which appeal 
for gifts we are at liberty to set aside because they are not 
sacred. We may give or not as we judge best, for they 

A-6 The Fundamentals 

depend on man's enterprises and schemes, which we may not 
altogether approve. But some causes have Divine sanction, 
and that hallows them; giving becomes an act of worship 
when it has to do with the altar. 


Another law of true giving is that of transmutation. 
"Make to yourselves friends of the mammon of unrighteous- 
ness ; that, when ye fail, they may receive you into everlasting 
habitations" (Luke 16:9). This, though considered by many 
an obscure parable, contains one of the greatest hints on 
money gifts that our Lord ever dropped. 

Mammon here stands as the equivalent for money, prac- 
tically worshipped. It reminds us of the golden calf that was 
made out of the ear-rings and jewels of the crowd. Now 
our Lord refers to a second transmutation. The golden calf 
may in turn be melted down and coined into Bibles, churches, 
books, tracts, and even souls of men. Thus what was material 
and temporal becomes immaterial and spiritual, and eternal. 
Here is a man who has a hundred dollars. He may spend it 
all on a banquet, or an evening party, in which case the next 
day there is nothing to show for it. It has secured a tempo- 
rary gratification of appetite — that is all. On the other hand, 
he invests in Bibles at ten cents each, and it buys a thousand 
copies of the Word of God. These he Judiciously sows as 
seed of the Kingdom, and that seed springs up a harvest, 
not of Bibles, but of souls. Out of the unrighteous mammon 
he has made immortal friends, who, when he fails, receive 
him into everlasting habitations. May this not be what is 
meant by the true riches — ^the treasure laid up in heaven in 
imperishable good? 

What revelations await us in that day of transmutation! 
Then, whatever has been given up to God as an offering of 
the heart, "in righteousness," will be seen as transfigured. 
Not only the magi's gold, frankincense and myrrh, and the 

Our Lord's Teachings About Money 47 

alabaster box of ointment of spikenard, very precious, and the 
houses and lands of such as Barnabas, but fishermen's boats 
and nets, the abandoned "seat of custom," the widow's mites, 
and the cup of cold water — yes, when we had nothing else 
to give, the word of counsel, the tear of pity, the prayer of 
intercession. Then shall be seen both the limitless possibilities 
and the "transcendent riches" of consecrated poverty. 

Never will the work of missions, or any other form of 
service to God and man, receive the help it ought until there 
is a new conscience and a new consecration in the matter of 
money. The influence of the world and the worldly spirit 
is deadening to unselfish giving. It exalts self-indulgence, 
whether in gross or refined form. It leads to covetous hoard- 
ing or wasteful spending. It blinds us to the fact of obliga- 
tion, and devises flimsy pretexts for diverting the Lord's 
money to carnal ends. The few who learn to give on Scrip- 
tural principles learn also to love to give. These gifts become 
abundant and systematic and self-denying. The stream of 
beneficence flows perpetually — there is no period of drought. 

Once it was necessary to proclaim to the people of God 
that what they had brought "was more than enough," and 
to "restrain them from bringing" (Ex. 36:6). So far as 
known, this is the one and only historic instance of such excess 
of generosity. But should not that always be the case? Is 
it not a shame and disgrace that there ever should be a lack 
of "meat in God's house"? When His work appeals for 
aid, should there ever be a reluctance to respond or a doling 
out of a mere pittance? Surely His unspeakable gift should 
make all giving to Him a spontaneous offering of love that, 
like Mary's, should bring its precious flask of spikenard and 
lavish its treasures on His feet, and fill the house with the 
odor of self-sacrifice I 





The Scriptures give but veiled glimpses of his origin and 
home, for their purpose is more expressly to reveal God in 
His character; and Christ as the Redeemer of men; with the 
history of the redeemed from the fall of Adam, their salva- 
tion through the Cross, and their eternal destiny, when Christ 
shall have "abolished all rule and all authority and power" (1 
Cor. 15:24), contrary to the reign of God, and God Himself 
shall be All in all. 

Our Lord says of Satan, "he was a murderer from the 
beginning" (John 8 : 44) and John says of him that he "sinneth 
from the beginning" (1 John 3:8). 


In regard to the position and character of Satan we know 
that he is the very embodiment of a lie, for "There is no truth 
in him . . . he is a liar, and the father of it," said the 
Lord. The various names by which he is described in the 
Scriptures reveal his power. Fallen though he be, he is called 
by the Lord Jesus no less than three times the "prince of 
this world" (John 12:31; 14:30; 16:11), thus plainly rec- 
ognizing his rule over the earth. That he is a personage of 
rank and power we learn from Jude: "Michael, the arch- 
angel, when contending with the devil, he disputed about the 

♦Condensed from "The Warfare with Satan and the Way of Victory." 
Published by Marshall Brothers, 10 Paternoster Row, London, E. C, 


Satan and His Kingdom 49 

body of Moses, durst not bring against him a railing judg- 
ment, but said. The Lord rebuke thee" (Jude 9). He is also 
called the "god of this age" (2 Cor. 4:4, margin), for men 
obey and worship him, even unconsciously, when they do not 
obey and worship the Creator. 

The fallen archangel is moreover described as the "prince 
of the power of the air" (Eph. 2:2), meaning wicked spir- 
itual powers dwelling in the aerial heavens, for it seems the 
"Satanic confederation has its seat in the atmospheric heaven 
— in the spaces above and around our world" (Seiss). That 
the "prince of the power of the air" has power (when per- 
mission is granted) to wield the forces of the air we see in 
the history of Job; for at his bidding lightning fell from 
heaven to consume the flocks of the faithful servant of God, 
and he caused a wind to blow Job's house down and kill his 
children. In relation to his attacks upon the children of men 
the prince of this world is called the "tempter" (1 Thess. 
3:5), because it is his fiendish delight to tempt others from 
loyal obedience to God. And he is named "the devil" ( 1 Tim. 
3:6, 7) — a word never used in the plural, and always, and 
only, of Satan himself. "The Hebrew name Satan occurs in 
the New Testament thirty-five times interchangeably with the 
Greek Diabolos, which is also used thirty-five times. The 
word Diabolos signifies "separator and slanderer" (Black- 
stone), or "malignant accuser." Satan is the great separator, 
and he separates by slandering. He separated the race of 
man from God in Eden, and ever since he has been separating 
men from each other, with hatred, malice, envy and jealousy. 
He is especially named the "accuser of the brethren" (Rev. 
12: 10), and we find him also described as "the great dragon," 
the "old serpent," and the "deceiver of the whole inhabited 

That the adversary still has the world under his rule, is un- 
mistakably shown in his attack upon the Lord Jesus in the 
wilderness. The Lord was led, under the constraint of the 

50 The Fundamentals 

Holy Spirit, into the wilderness to be "tempted of the devil," 
and after other temptations, the devil showed Him "all the 
kingdoms of the inhabited earth. And the devil said unto 
Him, To Thee will I give all this authority, and the glory of 
them : for it hath been delivered unto me ; and to whomsoever 
I will I give it. If Thou therefore wilt worship before me, 
it shall all be Thine" (Luke 4: 5, 6, 7, margin). 

What a daring condition to put to the Son of God. The 
fallen archangel is craving for worship still. 

The extent of His claim to "all the kingdoms of the inhab- 
ited earth" the Son of God did not deny, and later the Lord 
plainly speaks of Satan's kingdom. "If Satan also is divided 
against himself, how shall his kingdom stand"? (Luke 
11 : 18.) And He adds, "The strong man fully armed guard- 
eth his own court," until "a Stronger than he" comes upon 
him, and sets his captive free. How fitting therefore the peti- 
tion, "Deliver us from the evil one" (Matt. 6:13)! John 
also emphasizes the universality of Satan's rule, for he writes, 
"The whole world lieth in the evil one" (1 John 4:19) — it is 
sunk in the darkness which is his sphere, and is under the 
rule of the "world-rulers of this darkness" (Eph. 6: 12). The 
Scripture makes no distinction between high and low, or be- 
tween cultured and ignorant, when it states that the "whole 
world" — heathen and Christendom — lies "in" the realm of 
the evil one. 

In heathen lands, the deceiver is daring in his tyranny, 
holding men and women in gross and open sin. In civilized 
countries, the god of this age needs must veil his working. 
In these last days, however, he is beginning to more openly 
manifest himself as the prince of the world. He is familiariz- 
ing people with his name. Books to be popular must be 
about him, and in fashion's realm serpents have been the 
favorite ornaments of dress, while palmistry, clairvoyance, 
planchette, and other means of intercourse with the spirits of 
evil, abound on every hand. 

Satan and His Kingdom 51 

The adversary has also his organized governments, which 
the Apostle Paul describes as "principalities . . . powers 
. . . sovereigns of this present darkness" (Eph. 6: 12, 
C. H.). We read of "Satan's throne" (Rev. 2: 13) ; of "his 
ministers" (2 Cor. 11:15); of his "principalities" and his 
"powers"; and of his hosts of "spirits of evil" (Eph. 6: 12, 
C. H.) in the heavens. Daniel's account of his interview with 
the messenger from God supports the view that these princi- 
palities and powers of Satan are given charge of specified coun- 
tries ; for the Satanic "prince of Persia" withstood the heavenly 
messenger, who said that on his return he would again have 
to meet with the same Prince, together with the "Prince 
of Greece" (Dan. 10: 13, 20). Satan therefore reigns over 
an aerial kingdom of hierarchies and spiritual powers, and a 
kingdom on earth in the world of men, and he governs by 
means of an organized government. 

But let us not forget that all these hosts are compelled to 
acknowledge the Sovereign Lord of the Universe ! Unbelievers 
in God are alone to be found on earth, for the powers of evil 
"believe and shudder" (James 2: 19), knowing that they are 
reserved unto judgment. 


In his organized government the adversary has also a 
religion for those whom he can delude and deceive, showing 
his perfect mimicry of the worship of the true God. 


In 1 Corinthians one aspect of Satan's religion is revealed 
as we are shown what idol-worship actually means. They who 
would walk in fellowship with God must "flee from idolatry," 
lest they would hold "communion with demons." They dare 
not partake of the "table of the Lord," and of the "table of 
demons." (1 Cor. 10: 19-22, C. H.). The matter was vital 
to the Corinthians, as it now is to native Christians in heathen 

52 The Fundamentals 

lands, for oftentimes the meat offered for sale had first been 
offered to idols, and some of the Corinthian Christians had 
accepted invitations to feasts celebrated in the temple of 
heathen gods — feasts which were acts of idolatrous worship. 
Thus we see how the fallen archangel not only deceives, and 
holds in darkness the human race, but he adds to their destruc- 
tion, by seeking to meet the desire for an object of worship 
which lies dormant in every breast. 


But apart from direct Satanic worship, Satan has other 
ways of meeting the need for some religion. Paul writes to 
the Romans, "Thou that abhorrest idols, dost thou commit 
sacrilege?" (Rom. 2:22, margin) as he shows that no out- 
ward rite or ceremonial fulfillment of the law is acceptable 
to God. Satan knows this, and therefore persuades men that 
outward obedience to some creed is enough, thus deluding 
multitudes into a false peace by causing them to rest upon an 
outward ceremony or form of words. 

In the Lord's message to the church at Smyrna, He spoke 
of those who "say they are Jews, and are not, but are the 
synagogue of Satan" (Rev. 2:9). It appears by this that the 
adversary has not only a religion which gives him worship 
through material images, but that his "synagogue" or congre- 
gation is made up of professors of religion who are without 
the inward truth. John writes, "If we say that we have 
fellowship with Him, and walk in darkness [i. e. in sin], we 
lie, and do not the truth" (1 John 1 : 6, A. V.) ; and the most 
severe words that ever passed the lips of Christ were His 
scathing exposures of the Pharisees. "They say and do not" 
He said, and "outwardly appear righteous unto men," when 
inwardly full of hypocrisy. He told them they were of 
their "father the devil," and called them "serpents," and the 
"offspring of vipers" (Matt. 23: 15). And yet the Pharisees 
^ claimed God as their Father, and were the straitest sect in 

Satan and His Kingdom 53 

Israel in the outward fulfilling of the law! The Lord's 
strong words make it appear that Satan's invisible "church" 
is filled with those who make religion a cloak while they are 
really his subjects. 

Satan's doctrines 

The Apostle Paul wrote to Timothy that the Holy Spirit 
had expressly told him that in the latter days the adversary 
would seek to draw many away from the faith by the teaching 
of spirits inculcating "doctrines of demons" (1 Tim. 4:1, 
m.). So that Satan has "doctrines" as well as system 
of worship — a "cup," a "table," and a "synagogue!" Paul 
said that the teaching would be given through men who 
would profess to be what they were not, and whose consciences 
would be seared as with a hot iron. 

These "teachings of demons," through false teachers acting 
under their control, had already begun in the first century, 
and seducing spirits were evidently at work in the church 
at Thyatira drawing servants of God from their Lord through 
the "deep things of Satan" (Rev. 2:24). One calling her- 
self a prophetess was leading souls astray, teaching them to 
"eat things sacrificed to idols." The Lord's complaint was 
that the church suffered these things to be in its midst — 
things upon which He pronounced the most awful warning of 
certain judgment. Satan's religion has always one clearly 
defined mark in the omission of the Gospel of Calvary. 
And by this test all "gospels" that are not the Gospel may 
be recognized! The atoning death of the Son of God; His 
propitiation for sin; His blotting out of sin; His deliverance 
from the power of sin by the severing power of the Cross ; 
His call of the blood-redeemed soul to the Cross in humiliation 
of self, and sacrifice for others — in brief, all that Calvary 
means, is emphatically repudiated, or else always carefully 
omitted, in the doctrines of the seducing spirits which are 
evolved in hell! Let everyone thus test the tenets of The- 

54 The Fundamentals 

osophy, of Christian ( ?) Science, and all other teachings now 
being poured into the world by spirits of evil, who do not 
hesitate to appropriate for their purposes the very language 
describing the effects, and blessings of the Gospel. 

It cannot always be said that there is no mention of the 
Cross (and in his later workings, even of the Blood of 
Christ), in Satan's religious teaching, but it is the Cross as 
only an outward symbol without the inward power, for he 
knows that it is only the real acceptance of the death of 
Christ — or Cross of Christ — which saves from sin and deliv- 
ers the soul from the power of Satan. 


"The whole world lieth in the evil one," declares the 
Apostle John, but it is of the supremest importance to the 
prince of this world that those who dwell in his realm should 
not know it. To keep men ignorant of their position he blinds 
their minds! "The god of this world hath blinded the minds 
[m., thoughts] of the unbelieving, that the light of the Gospel 
. . . should not dawn upon them" (2 Cor. 4:4). 

The adversary dreads the light of God, for light reveals 
things as they are, both in the natural and in the spiritual 
world. "Ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall make 
you free" (John 8:32). The truth about the love of God to 
men, of men as sinners needing a Saviour, and of God's gift of 
a perfect Saviour when really apprehended by the soul, must 
set free, and so the adversary hides the truth from his cap- 
tives. They are kept "darkened in their understanding" and 
are thus "alienated from the life of God because of the 
ignorance that is in them" (Eph. 4: 18). 

That the truth must reach the understanding to be effec- 
tual in delivering the soul is evident from the Lord's words 
that the good ground which received the seed was in the one 
"that heareth the Word, and understandeth it" (Matt. 13:23; 
see also Col. 1:9; 1 John 5:20). The adversary therefore 

Satan and His Kingdom 55 

labors to keep the understanding darkened, blinding the mind 
with (1) wrong thoughts about God, (2) prejudices of all 
kinds, (3) philosophy of earth, (4) false reasonings concern- 
ing spiritual things, or else he occupies the thoughts with 
earthly things, earthly idols, or the cares and pleasures of 
this life. The Spirit of God alone can defeat the evil one, 
and destroy the veil which darkens men's minds. 

The adversary seeks to snatch away the Word of truth. 
"When anyone heareth the Word . . . and understandeth 
it not, then cometh the evil one, and snatcheth away" (Matt. 
13 : 19). The adversary, or his minions, attends every preach- 
ing of the Word of truth, and when it does not enter the 
understanding it is easily snatched away. Once the smallest 
seed of the Word of truth enters the understanding it is sure 
to bring forth fruit in its season, unless it is choked by other 
things entering in. 

The adversary keeps his subjects in a false peace. "The 
strong man fully armed guardeth his own court," and "his 
goods are in peace" (Luke 11:21). Here the adversary is 
pictured as in full control of the darkened sinner, keeping 
him in peace, and the sinner is guarded carefully by the ter- 
rible one who is "fully armed" to meet every attempt to deliver 
the captive from his bonds. The poor soul resents his peace 
being disturbed, and cries, "Let me alone," but the time comes 
when the "Stronger than he" — the Man of Calvary — lays hold 
of the captive soul, and he is delivered "out of the power of 
darkness, and translated . . . into the kingdom of the 
Son" (Col. 1:13). 

The adversary counterfeits the true work of God. "While 
men slept, his enemy came, and sowed tares also among 
the wheat" (Matt. 13:25, 38, 39). The "tares are the sons 
of the evil one . . . the enemy that sowed them is the 
devil." The attention of the world must be drawn to the 
counterfeits, and the true living seed of God hidden, for the 
tares look like the wheat until the time of fruit! And God 

56 The Fundamentals 

looks on ! "Let both grow together till the harvest," He cries, 
for the tares cannot be uprooted without danger to the grow- 
ing wheat And the adversary also works on! The Lord's 
wheat, and the adversary's tares; the true and the counter- 
feit; are always found side by side throughout the inhabited 

We mtist face the fact that the Scriptures declare these 
things to be true concerning all men, be they high or low, rich 
or poor, cultured or ignorant. There is no trace given of 
neutral ground. The Scripture "hath shut up all things under 
sin" (Gal. 3:22) that "every mouth may be stopped, and all 
the world may become guilty before God" (Rom. 3:19, 
A. v.). "He that doeth sin is of the devil" (1 John 3:8). 
The Divine life which comes from God, and is implanted in 
the child of God, does not sin, for the good tree bears good 
fruit. The fallen life must also bring forth its own fruit of 
sin. Sin in greater or lesser degree it is true, but sin as God 
calls sin. We are children of the one by whose life we live. 
Children of God if His life is imparted to us, or "children of 
the devil" if we live under his control. 

The arch-fiend has studied the fallen race of Adam for 
many thousand years, and knows how to allure his subjects. 
Among the sons of men there are some with more spirit- 
capacity than others, and these are the ones especially oi)en 
to his snares, and most likely to become his tools to work 
out his will. These souls would not be allured by the "flesh," 
nor would vain philosophy and reasonings charm them. 
Beguiled, as the serpent beguiled Eve, by the fascination of 
the knowledge of good and evil, he draws them on into unlaw- 
ful dealings with the spirit-world, until some are given "a 
spirit of divination" (Acts 16 : 16) like the damsel at Philippi, 
or like Simon the sorcerer, and are led into "magical arts" 
as in the days of Paul. Such are the workings of the adver- 
sary today in spiritism, palmistry, crystal-gazing, and such 
like things. In the twentieth century professed Christian 

Satan and His Kingdom 57 

people are once more practising the "abominations" which 
caused the Lord to cast out the nations of Canaan before 
His people Israel. Abominations which Jehovah solemnly 
forbade Israel to touch. (Read Deut. 18 : 9-12.) 

But all is in fulfillment of the Apostle Paul's forecast of 
the latter days. The grievous times are upon us. Men are 
"lovers of self, lovers of money, . . . lovers of pleasure 
rather than lovers of God; holding a form of godliness" 
while denying the power thereof (2 Tim. 3: 1-6). 


Satan was conquered at Calvary. The disobedience of the 
first Adam was met by the obedience of the second — the Lord 
from heaven. The punishment of death was carried out upon 
the sinless One who took upon Him the sins of the world, 
and died as the Representative Man. The fallen race of Adam 
which God said must be "blotted out" (Gen. 6:7, m.; Gen, 
7:23, nu.), because, "every imagination of the thoughts of 
the heart was only evil continually," was nailed to the Cross 
in the person of the second Adam, and by the Cross the 
Lord from heaven triumphed over the prince of darkness. 
"Through death" — the very result of sin; "through death" — 
the very weapon by which the evil one held his subjects in 
bondage; through death — the Prince of Life destroyed "him 
that had the power of death, that is, the devil" (Heb. 2: 14). 
Satan has fallen from heaven. He was "cast out," his power 
destroyed, his kingdom shaken, at the place called Calvary. 

But though the adversary was conquered at Calvary and 
cast down from his throne of power, he is left at large while 
the proclamation of the victory is sent throughout his domin- 
ions, for the purpose of giving the choice of masters to every 
human being. How bitterly the adversary resists the work of 
the Holy Spirit in men as their eyfes are opened to the truth ! 
But far more keenly does he resist the full enlightenment of 
the believer which makes him so possessed by the Holy Spirit 

58 The Fundamentals 

that he becomes an equipped and aggressive warrior in the 
army of the Lord. 


Note some of the ways in which the adversary resists the 
full deliverance of the soul after the light of the Gospel 
has dawned upon him: 

He seeks to keep back the soul from full surrender to God. 
"Ananias, why hath Satan filled thy heart to deceive the Holy 
Ghost, and to keep back part . . . ?" (Acts 5:3, m.) 
It was when all were placing their possessions entirely at the 
disposal of the Lord! Ananias laid part of his possessions at 
the Apostle's feet, pretending that it was "all" ! Peter, filled 
with the Spirit discerned the truth, and his stern words at 
once unveil the source of the sin ! Satan had "filled his heart" 
to make him "keep back part." Keep back part for self, is 
the tempter's whisper, for something kept for self gives place 
to the devil, and keeps the Redeemer from His Throne in 
the heart. 

He resists the removal of the filthy garments spotted by 
the flesh. "Satan standing at his right hand to be his adver- 
sary" (Zech. 3:1). Joshua is seen standing before the Lord 
clothed in filthy garments with Satan as his adversary. Even 
so does the devil resist every child of God as he stands before 
the Lord seeking to be clothed with change of raiment. 
Clothed in the garments spotted by the flesh, the redeemed one 
stands in dumb helplessness before the Lord. The simple 
words, "The Lord rebuke thee, O Satan," are spoken and the 
foe is silenced. The soul seeking deliverance is here shown 
the way of victory over the adversary! Just as we are, we 
must stand before the Lord in our deep need, and count upon 
Him to rebuke the evil one. 

He uses others to tempt us from the way of the Cross. 
"Be it far from Thee, Lord . . . But He turned and 

Satan and His Kingdom 59 

said unto Peter, Get thee behind Me, Satan" (Matt. 16:22, 
23). When the soul has yielded all in full surrender, and in 
dumb helplessness ceases from his own efforts to save him- 
self, he knows by the Holy Spirit that he must take the Cross, 
and deny himself, if Christ is to see of the travail of His 
soul, and be satisfied. But "Be it far from thee," cries the 
adversary, through the lips of even servants of God, who have 
dimmer visions of the things of God, and know not the eternal 
loss to the soul who listens to their plea. But "Get thee 
behind me, Satan," the redeemed one must cry as he looks 
behind the humEUi voice, and sees the adversary of God. 

He inflames the life of nature into division and strife. 
"If ye have bitter jealousy and faction in your heart . . . 
[it] is earthly, natural [or animal], devilish" (Jas. 3:14, 
15, m.). 

James points out that all "jealousy" and "faction" has its 
source in the life which he calls animal, and "devilish" ! Satan 
is shown here to be the real power working through the fallen 
life of nature. Possibly when the believer has taken the Cross 
for himself, circumstances arise when "loyalty demands that 
he should stand up for a friend !" The spirit of faction comes 
in, or jealousy for others, and the adversary triumphs. The 
Apostle says that the wisdom which is from above is "without 
partiality." All faction, all jealousy for the "own," in friends, 
or denomination, is instigated by the evil one to keep the 
believer in the sphere lying under his rule. 

The wiles of the devil concerning "revelations." "I know a 
man in Christ . . . caught up into paradise" (2 Cor. 
12:2, 4). "I will love him, and will manifest Myself unto 
him" (John 14:21), is a promise made by the Lord on the 
eve of His passion. There is a moment when the promise 
is fulfilled, and Christ reveals Himself to the obedient heart, 
and the believer knows the Risen Lord. To some He is 
manifested in light above the brightness of the sun, as to 
Paul in a wondrous heavenly vision, and others are but con- 

60 The Fundamentals 

scious of His Presence in a peace and joy unspeakable. In 
any case the glorified Christ now becomes a living reality to 
the soul. What are the wiles of the adversary now but an 
attempt to personate the Lord ! The believer must know that 
the evil one can fashion himself as an angel of light, and work 
with all "power and signs and lying wonders" (2 Thess. 2 : 9) 
to lead astray the very elect. 

We need to walk carefully with God at this stage of the 
spiritual life, not coveting wonderful experiences, but rather 
an ever-deepening conformity to the death of Jesus (Phil. 
3: 10), so that the life of Jesus may be manifested (2 Cor. 
4: 10, II) to all around. "Visions and revelations" are not 
given to the soul for its own enjoyment, but for some definite 
purpose, as with the Apostle Paul when he was stoned in 
Lystra; called to Macedonia; or needed clearer guidance to 
remain in Athens. 

The wiles concerning the voice of God. "The sheep fol- 
low Him, for they know His voice . . . they know not 
the voice of strangers" (John 10: 4, S). The Lord does speak 
to His children, and makes them to know His voice from the 
voice of strangers. They know it as a babe knows its mother's 
voice, but like the babe they may not be able to say how or 
why. When the believer is brought by the Spirit into the 
Spirit-sphere, and Christ is manifested to him, one of the 
first results is a knowledge of the voice of the Lord, in a 
way the soul has never realized before. The adversary knows 
that the believer has but little knowledge of his foe, so the 
wiles are soon planned to counterfeit the voice of the Lord, 
so as to confuse or to mislead the soul, either to destroy his 
faith in the guidance of the Spirit, or else to lead him in 
obedience to the voice of the devil, and in strong delusion to 
believe a lie. 

The believer who would overcome must now know how to 
distinguish the voice of the Lord from the voice of the foe. 
This may be done by its effect, and by its object. The voice of 

Satan and His Kingdom 61 

the Lord brings a deep calm over the spirit, whereas the voice 
of the devil often causes confusion, restlessness, agitation and 
uncertainty. The voice of the Lord is invariably in accord 
with the teaching of the Word of God, ahhough the adver- 
sary also can quote Scripture, but it is usually texts with the 
portions omitted which safeguard, or interpret the whole, or 
else he uses isolated words wrenched from the context which 
explains them! The wiles of the adversary are the most 
subtle, and likely to succeed, in the early days of the life in 
the Spirit-sphere, for as the believer matures in the knowl- 
edge of God, the "mind of Christ" becomes the mind of the 
one closely in fellowship with God. It is well that the believer 
should understand this, lest he give advantage to the enemy by 
falling into discouragement, or depression, when the transition 
from childhood to manhood takes place, and God is teaching 
him how to use his spiritual senses, discerning good and evil. 
(Heb. 5:14.) 

The wiles concerning guidance. "As many as are led by 
the Spirit of God, these are sons of God" (Rom. 8:14). 
There is scarcely any subject connected with the spiritual life 
more difficult to explain, and more misunderstood than the 
subject of guidance! The words, "I was 'led' to do this or 
that," are so often used when there is no evidence of any lead- 
ing at all. There are many wiles of the adversary around the 
subject. One tactic of the evil one is to make souls confused 
and distracted over what is the will of God ; others he deludes 
into throwing aside all use of their judgment and knowledge, 
to act upon some isolated text, or some "thought" that came 
to them in prayer; others are beguiled into an attitude of 
judgment upon the walk of others, or else into a position not 
far short of infallibility, though they would not use the word. 
Our text gives the principal mark of the true guidance of 
the Lord. "Led by the Spirit" means that He deals, and does 
not drive or force, therefore the soul must take heed not to 
force itself to any course of action which is repugnant to it, 

62 The Fundamentals 

that is, presupposing that the will is surrendered to God, as 
ready to take any course unmistakably shown to be His will. 

Then let us understand, too, that as the life of Christ 
matures in the believer, the Spirit leads more from within 
by the working of life, which manifests itself as simply and 
naturally as the life of nature. When the believer becomes 
a "full grown man" (Heb. 6:1, R. V. m.), with heart and 
will under the complete control of the Spirit, the new life will 
increasingly work in him with less and less perceived action 
to his consciousness. As many as are led by the Spirit, in 
this way, are indeed sons of God, with spirit, soul, and body, 
working out His will with ease and spontaneity. (1) They 
are "guided by the skilfulness of His hands" (Psa. 78:72), 
leading them hour by hour into the path prepared for them. 
(2) They are guided by their faithfulness to God: "The 
integrity of the upright shall guide them" (Prov. 11 : 3) — for 
they know what to do by the very instinct of right and wrong 
which God has planted within them. (3) The "meek will 
He guide in judgment" (Psa. 25 : 9), for He uses their renewed 
minds (Rom. 12: 2), yea, giving them the very mind of Christ, 
which led Him to empty Himself, and be obedient unto death 
— the death of the Cross. The soul that knows this principle 
of sacrifice and self-effacement as the characteristic of the life 
of Christ, needs no inner voice nor special guidance, to tell him 
what course he is to take while walking in this present evil 

The wiles concerning "liberty." "Ye have been called unto 
liberty ; only use not liberty for an occasion to the flesh" ( Gal. 
5: 13, A. v.). The believer who has emerged into the life 
in the Spirit finds himself free in a way he has never known 
before. It is just now that the evil one is ready with new 
wiles to ensnare the freed one, suggesting to him (1) "You 
have liberty now to do anything, for you are free"; or (2) 
"You are under no man's control now, especially those who 
are in the flesh." And the adversary now does his best to 

Satan and His Kingdom 63 

counterfeit the true freedom in Christ by inciting rebelHon to 
those in authority, and fleshly zeal under the name of the 
liberty of the Spirit. But the Word of God shows that the 
liberty wherewith Christ makes us free is really freedom from 
slavery to sin, and to the evil one. The freed soul passes 
under law to Christ, under the perfect law of liberty, which is 
liberty to do right, instead of seeing what is right, and doing 
what is wrong. Liberty to obey God intsead of disobeying 

The law of Christ comes in here, and shows that there is a 
limitation placed to liberty by the conscience of the weak 
brother. The freed one is not only to be subject to others 
in authority for the Lord's sake, but is to take heed lest his 
liberty of action become a "stumbling block to the weak" 
(1 Cor. 8:9). The Apostle Paul sets the example to the 
believer, and he wrote, "I have not used my right, but forego 
every claim, lest I should by any means hinder the course of 
Christ's glad-tidings" (1 Cor. 9:12, C. H. and note). The 
meaning of the word "claim" is "to hold out against." He 
would not "hold out" for his rights, but forego everything for 
himself rather than hinder the Gospel. 


These wiles of the devil are those which will meet every 
believer who enters the sphere of the Spirit, and they are wiles 
which cease to a great extent as he progresses in the knowl- 
edge of God, and learns to know his foe. 

The preaching of the Cross is therefore the supreme need 
in this day of contact with the supernatural forces of the 
unseen world, and conformity to the death of Christ (Phil. 
3:10), rather than the craving for signs and wonders, is the 
safest objective for all who desire to press on in the fullest 
knowledge of the upward calling of God in Christ Jesus our 




It is evident from many tracts and treatises on the Bap- 
tism of the Holy Spirit that due importance has not been 
given to the peculiar characteristic of the Pentecost gift in its 
relation to the sonship of believers. 

Before considering this theme a few brief statements may 
be made concerning the personality and deity of the Holy 
Spirit and His relation to the people of God in the dispensa- 
tions and times preceding the Day of Pentecost. 

1. The Holy Spirit, the Comforter, another Person, but 
not a different Being. 

In general it may be said, He is not an "influence" or a 
sum and series of "influences," but a personal Being with 
names and affections, words and acts, interchanged with those 
of God. 

He is God as Creator. (Gen. 1:2; Psa. 104:30; Job 
26: 13; Luke 1 : 35.) He is one with God as Jehovah (Lord) 
in providential leading and care, and susceptible of grief on 
account of the unholiness of His chosen people. We cannot 
grieve an "influence," but only a person, and a person, too, 
who loves us. (Psa. 78:40; Eph. 4:30.) He is one with 
God as Adonai (Lord), whose glory Isaiah beheld and John 
rehearses, who commissioned the prophet and sent forth the 
apostle. (Isa. 6: 1-10; John 12: 37-41 ; Acts 13:2; 20: 15-18.) 
In these Scriptures one and the same act is that of Jehovah 
and of Jesus and of the Holy Spirit. 

Besides the clear evidence of personality and equality 
in the baptismal words and in the benediction (Matt. 28: 19; 


The Holy Spirit and the Sons of God 65 

2 Cor. 13: 14), the promise of Jesus affirms the presence and 
the abiding of the Spirit to be one with His own and with 
the Father's in this Word. "If a man love Me he will keep 
My words, and My Father will love him, and we will come 
unto him and make our abode with him" (John 16:23). 
Above all, the name "another Comforter" (Paraclete) sug- 
gests a Person who would do for the disciples what Jesus 
the other Comforter (Luke 2:25) had been doing for them. 
He speaks, testifies, teaches, reminds, reproves, convicts, 
warns, commands, loves, consoles, beseeches, prays, intercedes, 
(often the word is "paracletes") ; in brief, all these and other 
acts and dealings are not those of an impersonal medium or 
influence, but of a person, and One who in the nature of the 
case cannot be less than God in wisdom, love and power, 
and who is one with the Father and the Son; another Person 
indeed, but not a different Being. 

2. The spiritual. Divine life in the people of God is 
the same in kind in every age and dispensation, but the 
relation to God in which the life was developed of old was 
different from that which now exists between believers as 
sons and God as Father, and in accordance with that relation- 
ship the Holy Spirit acted. 

He was of old the Author and Nourisher of all spiritual 
life and power in righteous men and women of past ages, in 
patriarch and friend of God, in Israelites as minors and 
servants, in pious kings and adoring psalmists, in consecrated 
priests and faithful prophets; and whatever truth had been 
revealed. He employed to develop the Divine life He had 
imparted. From the beginning, He used promise and precept, 
law and type. Psalm and ritual to instruct, quicken, convince, 
teach, lead, warn, comfort and to do all for the growth and 
establishment of the people of God. 

The Psalms run through the gamut of the spiritual experi- 
ence possible for those, who while waiting for the consolation 
of Israel and the future out-pouring of the Holy Spirit, were 

66 The Fundamentals 

"apart from us" not to be "made perfect" as sons and as 
"worshipers." More than one prayed, "Teach me to do Thy 
will, for Thou art my God ; let Thy good Spirit lead me into 
the land of uprightness" (Psa. 143: 10). But there was then 
still lacking among men the consummate Reality and perfect 
Illustration of a Son of God. 

When at last, all righteousness and holy virtues appeared 
in a Life of filial love and obedience, even in Christ "the 
first-born of many brethren," then the Mold and Image of the 
spiritual life of the saints of the old covenant, who were wait- 
ing for sonship, was seen perfect and complete. 

It was pre-eminently the life of a Son of God and not only 
of a righteous man ; of a Son ever rejoicing before the Father, 
His whole being filled with filial love and obedience, peace 
and joy. In ways Godward and manward, in self-denial and 
in full surrender to His Father's will, in hatred of sin and in 
grace to sinners, in purity of heart and forgiveness of injuries, 
in gentleness and all condescension, in restful yet ceaseless 
service, in unity of purpose and faultless obedience — in a 
word, in all excellencies and graces, in all virtues and beauties 
of the Spirit, in light and in love, the Lord Jesus set forth 
the mold and substance of the life spiritual, divine, eternal. 

3. Redemption must precede both the sonship and the 
gift of the Spirit. 

This is very clearly seen in the Apostle's argument on the 
great subject: "God sent forth His Son, born of a woman, 
born under the law, that He might redeem them that were 
under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons. 
And because ye are sons God sent forth the Spirit of His 
Son into our hearts, crying, Abba, Father" (Gal. 4:4-6). The 
word "adoption" signifies the placing in the state and relation 
of a son. It is found in Romans 9:4; 13: 15, 23; Gal. 4:5; 
Eph. 1 : 5. 

In the writings of John believers are never called sons, but 
"children" ("born ones"), a word indicating nature, kinship. 

The Holy Spirit and the Sons of God 67 

Sonship relates not to nature, but to legal standing; it comes 
not through regeneration, but by redemption. The disciples 
of Jesus had to wait until the Son of God had redeemed 
them; and then on the redeemed disciples the Spirit of God 
was poured at Pentecost, not to make believers sons, but 
because they had become sons through redemption. In brief, 
sonship, though ever since redemption inseparable from justi- 
fication, does in the order of salvation succeed justification. 
Justification in Rom. 5 : 1 precedes the "grace" of sonship in 
5 : 2. This "access" or "introduction" is of the justified into 
the presence of God as Father; and it is through Christ and 
by the Spirit. (Eph. 2: 18; 3: 12.) 

We were "predestined" to be sons of God, and to be 
"conformed to the image of His Son" (Eph. 1:5; Rom. 
8:29). In Eph. 1:5 the "sonship" is rather corporate; all 
believers are viewed as one "son," one "body," just as Jehovah 
said of Israel, "My son," "My first born." This corporate- 
ness is really to be understood in Gal. 3 : 28, which may read, 
"Ye are all one son in Christ Jesus," instead of "one man." 
(See also Eph. 4: 13; 1 Cor. 12: 12.) 

And this image is His as glorified, so that until we have 
been conformed to His body of glory, our "adoption" or son- 
ship is not complete nor our experience of redemption fin- 
ished. (Rom. 8:23.) 

And special emphasis should be laid upon the truth that 
sins were before God only pretermitted until the atonement 
was made; "propitiation for the pretermission [passing over] 
of sins that are past" (Rom. 3:25) ; "for the redemption of 
the transgressions that were under the first testament" (Heb. 

Remission came through the great offering for sin, just as 
sonship came through this redemption; and as the Spirit was 
given because believers had become sons, so also He could 
be given because believers had received the remission of their 

68 The Fundamentals 

sins. This is the invariable order; faith in Christ, remission 
of sins, gift of the Holy Spirit. 

Yea, more, as without the gracious power of the Spirit of 
God the new birth would be impossible, so without the redeem- 
ing blood of Christ the estate of sonship would have been 
unattainable; the Spirit and the blood are equally necessary 
to the full accomplishment of the eternal purpose of God. 

In brief, through redemption the new dignity of sonship 
was conferred, the new name "sons" was given to them as a 
new name "Father" had been declared of Him; a new name 
was given to the life in this new relation, "the life eternal," 
and a new name, "Spirit of His Son," was given to the Holy 
Spirit, who henceforth, with new truth and a new command- 
ment, would nourish and develop this life and illumine and 
lead believers into all the privileges and duties of the sons of 

These facts are then all related to and dependent upon 
each other; Jesus must first lay the ground of the forgive- 
ness of sins of past and future times in His work of redemp- 
tion and reconciliation; as risen and glorified, not before, He 
is "the first-born of many brethren," to whose image they 
are predestined to be conformed; as the Son, He declared to 
them the name of God as Father, the crowning name of God 
corresponding to their highest name, sons of God. As His 
"brethren" in this high and peculiar sense. He did not call 
them until He had first suffered, died, and risen again from 
the dead, but that name is the first word He spoke of them on 
the morning of resurrection, as if it were the chiefest joy of 
His soul to name and greet them as His brethren, and sons 
of God, being in and with Him "sons of the resurrection ;" and 
because they were sons, the Father, through the Son, sent 
forth the Spirit of His Son into their hearts, crying, "Abba, 
Father !" 

It is the marvelous dignity of a sonship in glory, like that 
of our Lord Jesus, with all its attendant blessings and priv- 

The Holy Spirit and the Sons of God 69 

ileges, service and rewards, suffering and glories, to which 
the gift of the Holy Spirit is related in this present dispensa- 

Accordingly when the disciples were baptized with the 
Spirit on the Day of Pentecost they were not only endued 
with ministering power, but they also then entered into the 
experience of sonship. Then they knew as they could not 
have known before, though the Book of the Acts records but 
little of their inner life, that through the heaven-descended 
Spirit the sons of God are forever united with the heaven- 
ascended, glorified Son of God. Whether they at first fully 
realized this fact or not, it is seen as in the Gospel of John, 
they were in Him and He in them. Was Jesus begotten of 
the Spirit, so were they; was He not of the world as to origin 
and nature, neither were they; was He loved of the Father, 
so were they, and with the same love; was He sanctified and 
sent into the world to bear witness to the truth, so likewise He 
sent them; did He receive the Spirit as the seal of God to 
His Sonship, so were they sealed; was He anointed with 
power and light to serve, so they received the unction from 
Him; did He begin to serve when there came the attesting 
Spirit and confirming word of the Father, so they began to 
serve when the Spirit of the Son, the Witness, was sent forth 
into their hearts, saying Abba, Father; was He, after service 
and sufiEering, received up in glory, so shall they obtain His 
glory when He comes again to receive them unto Himself. 
Verily, "we are as He is in this world." (1 John 4: 17; John 
10:36; 17:1-26; Rom. 5:5.) 

In view of these truths of Divine revelation how foolish 
the wisdom of the natural man and how sadly misleading 
the doctrine which makes the "fatherhood of God and the 
brotherhood of man," which are by nature and creation, 
identical and co-extensive with that which is by grace and 
redemption ; for not only does the imperative word, "Ye must 
be born again," sweep away all the merit and glory of man 

70 The Fundamentals 

as he is by the first birth, but also, the predestination to a 
sonship like that of the Son of God in glory lifts the "twice- 
born" to a height and dignity never conceived of by the 
natural man. 

4. In the gift of the Holy Spirit on the Day of Pentecost 
all gifts for believers in Christ were contained and were 
related to them as Sons of God both individually and cor- 
poratively as the Church the Body of Christ. 

In kind, as can be seen on comparison, there was no dif- 
ference in His gifts and acts before and after that day, but 
the new Gift was now to dwell in the hearts of men as sons 
of God and with more abundant life and varied manifesta- 
tions of power and wisdom. 

But by the Spirit the one Body was formed and all gifts 
are due to His perpetual presence. (1 Cor. 12:14.) Also, 
it is to be understood that such a word of Jesus, "If ye then 
being evil know how to give good gifts unto your children, 
how much more shall your Heavenly Father give the Holy 
Spirit to them that ask Him," could not have been fulfilled 
until a later hour, for repeating His promise at another time 
it is said of Jesus, "But this spake He of the Spirit which 
they that believed on Him should receive, for the Holy Ghost 
was not yet given, because Jesus was not yet glorified" (John 
3:7-39). These are some of the anticipative sayings of our 
Lord, not to be made good until He had died and risen again. 
The good things could not be given until "transgression had 
been forgiven and sin covered." The water could not pour 
forth until the Rock had been smitten. And as to the use of 
the words, "baptize" and "pour," they afterwards, in later 
Scriptures, imply the original incorporating act. 

It is significant that after Pentecost only the words, "filled 
with the Spirit," are used. Nothing is said of an individual 
receiving a new or fresh "baptism of the Spirit." It would 
imply that the baptism is one for the whole Body until all 
the members are incorporated ; one the outpouring, many the 

The Holy Spirit and the Sons of God 71 

fillings; one fountain, many the hearts to drink, to have in 
turn a well of water springing up within them. 

The disciples were indeed endued with power for service 
according to promise; on that especially their eyes and hearts 
had been fixed ; that was the chief thing for them ; but in the 
light of later Scriptures it is seen that the chief thing with God 
was not only to attest the glory of Jesus by the gift of the 
Spirit, but also "in one Spirit to baptise into one body" the 
"children of God," who until then were looked upon as "scat- 
tered abroad," as unincorporated members. (1 Cor. 12:13; 
John 11:52; Gal. 3:27, 28.) And the Gift, whether to the 
Body or to the individual member, is once for all. As the 
Christian is once for all in Christ, so the Holy Spirit is once 
for all in the Christian; but the intent of the presence of the 
Spirit is often but feebly met by the believer, just as his knowl- 
edge of what it is to be "in Christ" is often most defective. 

5. The Holy Spirit is given at once on the remission of 
sins to them that believe in Christ Jesus as their Lord and 

It is, however, to be observed that as the Spirit acts accord- 
ing to the truth known, or believed and obeyed, an interval 
unspiritual or unfruitful may come between the remission of 
sins and the marked manifestation of the Spirit, either in 
relation to holiness of life, or to power for service, or to 
patience in trials. It certainly is the divine ideal of a holy 
life, that the presence of the Spirit should at once be made 
manifest on the forgiveness of sins, and continue in increasing 
light and power to the end. (Rom. 5:1-5; Titus 3 : 4-7.) 

And this steady onward progress more and more unto the 
perfect day has been and is true of many, who from early 
childhood, or from the day of conversion, in the case of adults, 
were led continuously by the Spirit and never came to one 
great crisis. With others it is not so, for it is the confession 
of a large number of men and women, afterward eminent for 
holiness, devotion, endurance, that their life previous to such 

72 The Fundamentals 

crisis had been hardly worth the name of Christian. What- 
ever explanation or "philosophy" of such experience may be 
given, the following is true of the majority. 

The full truth of the sonship and salvation of believers 
may not have been taught them when they first believed; the 
life may have begun under a yoke of legal bondage; the 
freedom of filial access may have been doubted, even though 
their hearts often burned within them because of the pres- 
ence of the unknown Spirit ; and thus weary, ineffective years 
passed, attended with but little growth in grace or fruitful 
service, or patient resignation, until a point was reached in 
various ways, and through providences often unexpected and 
most marvelous, when at last the Holy Spirit made Himself 
manifest in the fulness of His love and power. 

That there is with God an interval between justification 
and the giving of the Spirit (an interval such as certain 
theories contend for), cannot be proved. The unsatisfactory 
experience of the ignorant Christian may lead him to think he 
never had the Spirit. 

There are, however, certain intervals recorded in the New 
Testament which should be considered. The one between the 
ascension and Pentecost was for a peculiar preparation 
through prayer and waiting on the Lord ; that of the forty 
days between the resurrection and the ascension was a con- 
tinuation of the presence of Jesus the other Comforter, and 
of whom it is written, "He opened their understanding that 
they understand the Scriptures," so doing what His Holy 
Spirit was to do when He came; and during the previous 
days of His public ministry not only did Jesus teach, but as 
attested at the confession of Peter, also the Father was reveal- 
ing truth to men : "Flesh and blood hath not revealed it unto 
thee, but My Father who is in heaven." 

In the light of this word to Peter it may be said that up 
to Pentecost the Spirit of God was at work in the world in 
the modes of the old dispensation, but that when the Day of 

The Holy Spirit and the Sons of God 7i 

Pentecost came His peculiar work began in relation to believ- 
ers as sons of God. Even the breathing of Christ upon the 
disciples on the evening of the day of His resurrection was, 
in accordance with the many symbolic acts and sayings 
recorded in the Gospel of John, symbolic of the Mighty Breath 
of Pentecost, for both the symbol and the reality were asso- 
ciated with the enduement of power for the service which 
began at Pentecost. Besides, they were told forty days later 
to tarry in Jerusalem for such enduement. They could not 
already have received it and yet be told to wait for it. And 
Thomas was not present on the evening of that breathing. 

As to other intervals; that in case of the converts on the 
Day of Pentecost was doubtless for the confirmation of the 
apostolic authority; that of the Samaritans when Philip 
preached may be accounted for by remembering the religious 
feud between Jew and Samaritan which now must be settled 
for all time and the unity of the Church established. Also 
seeing "salvation is from the Jews," the authority of Jewish 
apostles must be affirmed, for to them Christ had committed 
the founding of the Church. (Acts 8: 14-17.) 

In regard to Paul, it is evident from the narrative, he 
knew not the full import of the appearing of Jesus, until 
Ananias came. The recovery of sight, the forgiveness of 
sins, the filling of the Holy Spirit, all took place during this 
interview. He received the Spirit, as was befitting the Apostle 
to the Gentiles, in a Gentile city, far away from the other 
apostles, for his apostleship was to be "not from men, neither 
through a man" (Acts 9: 10-19; 22: 6-16). 

But the case of Cornelius proves that no interval at all need 
exist, for the moment Peter spoke this word, received by 
faith by Cornelius and those present, the Holy Spirit who 
knew their hearts fell on them : "To Him give all the prophets 
witness that through His name whosoever believeth in Him 
shall receive the remission of sins." Peter intended to say 
more, but God showed by the sudden outpouring of the Spirit 

74 The Fundamentals 

that Peter had said enough, for from Peter's report to the 
church in Jerusalem we learn that he intended to say more, 
and not only say more but probably do more, so making an 
interval even as in the case of the Samaritans through baptism, 
prayer and laying on of his hands that they might receive 
the Holy Ghost. (Acts 8: 14-17; 10:43-44; 11: 15, 16.) 

It is especially to be noted in this connection that the text 
of Eph. 1 : 13, so often quoted as proving a long interval 
between faith in Christ and "the sealing of the Spirit," "In 
whom also after that ye believed, ye were sealed with that 
Holy Spirit of promise," lends no authority for such long 
interval of time, for the word "after" implies more than the 
Greek participle warrants, and accordingly the Revision reads, 
"In whom having also believed, ye were sealed with the Holy 
Spirit of promise;" but the very same participle, "having 
believed," used by Paul in Ephesians, is used by Peter in the 
Acts in rehearsing the interview with Cornelius, who received 
the Spirit immediately. (Acts 2: 17.) 

Neither does the remaining instance of the twelve disciples 
of John the Baptist whom Paul found in Ephesus, prove that 
such an interval is necessary or inevitable today; for they 
had not even heard that Jesus had come, and that redemption 
had been accomplished, and the Spirit given; but as soon 
as remission of sins in the name of Jesus was preached to 
them, they believed, were baptized, and through prayer and 
the laying on of Paul's hands, received the Holy Spirit. (Acts 

The question Paul addressed to them, "Have ye received 
the Holy Ghost since ye believed?" (or in the Revision, "Did 
ye receive the Holy Ghost when ye believed?") has been most 
strangely applied in these days to Christians, whereas it was 
pertinent to these disciples of John only. To address it to 
ChristioMS now is to deny a finished redemption, the sonship 
of believers and the once-for-all out-pouring of the Holy 

The Holy Spirit and the Sons of God 75 

And it is implied in the case of Cornelius* with which the 
Apostle Peter had nothing to do except to preach the word, 
that when the apostles had passed away the mold of exper- 
ience common for all succeeding centuries would be that of 
these Gentile converts wherever in Christendom or heathen- 
dom the Gospel of Christ might be preached. 

6. The conditions of the manifestation of the presence 
and power of the Spirit are the same, at conversion or at 
any later, deeper experience of the believer, whether in rela- 
tion to fuller knowledge of Christ, or to more effective service, 
or to more patient endurance of ill, or to growth in likeness 
to Christ. 

The experience, in each case, is run in the same mold; 
each part, each word or fact of Christ, must be received in 
the same attitude and condition of mind as the first, when 
He was seen as the Bearer of our sins, even hy faith alone. 

Negatively, it may be said that the conditions are con- 
fessed weakness and inability to help oneself; the end of 
nature's wisdom, power, righteousness has been reached ; utter 
despair of there being any good thing "in the flesh" settles 
over the soul, a willingness to look to God alone for help 
begins to stir in the heart. Convictions of unfaithfulness and 
self-seeking mingle with a hunger and thirst for righteousness 
and a life worthy of the name of Christian. 

It is not, however, as consciously sinless in themselves 
that the Spirit is given to them who "seek the blessing," but 
to them as sinless "in Christ." Believers in Christ begin their 
life in the very standing of the Son of God Himself. Neither 
do the Scriptures teach, as implied or expressed in certain 
theories, that there is an interval between the remission of 
sins and "the sealing of the Spirit," and that "justified" 
believers may die during such interval having never been 
"sealed," and so never been "in Christ," and never been 
attested sons of God. 
♦Acts 10. 

76 The Fundamentals 

Such belief contradicts the very grace of God and implies 
that sonship depends upon the gift of the Spirit and not 
upon redemption and the remission of sins, and would read, 
"Because ye have the Spirit ye are sons," instead of, "And 
because ye are sons, God sent forth the Spirit of His Son 
into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father." It also follows that 
such justified ones devoid of the Spirit are not Christ's nor 
Christians, for it is plainly written, "But if any man hath not 
the Spirit of Christ, he is none of His;" and also, "No man 
can say, Jesus is Lord, but in the Holy Spirit." And as to 
the proof of the presence of the Spirit at such times, whatever 
emotions or high raptures may attend the discoveries of the 
love and power of God in the case of some, they are not 
to be the tests and measures for all. Conversions are not 
alike in all, neither are the manifestations of the Spirit. He 
may come like the sun at high noon through rifted clouds 
or like a slowly deepening dawn; like a shower or like the 
dew; like a great tide of air or like a gentle breathing; but 
"all these worketh the one and self-same Spirit." But more 
than all, the proof is seen in growth in holiness, in self- 
denials for Christ's sake, in the manifold graces and abiding 
fruit of the Spirit. 

As in the apostolic day so now the desire exists for the 
manifestation of the Spirit in marvelous ways ; but a life sober, 
righteous, holy, lived in the hope of the glory to come, is 
the more excellent way of the Spirit's manifestation and 
undeniable proof of His indwelling. 

Positively, the requirements or inseparable accompani- 
ments of the manifestation of the indwelling Spirit, whether 
for holy living or faithful service, must be drawn from the 
example of the Son of God our Lord Jesus. And they are 
prayer, obedience, faith, and above all a desire and purpose 
to glorify Christ. All, indeed, may be summed up in one 
condition, and that is, to let God have His ozem unit and way 
with lis. 

The Holy Spirit and the Sons of God 77 

If, then, it is to believers as sons of God, to whom and in 
whom and through whom the Holy Spirit manifests His pres- 
ence and power, it would follow that whatever Jesus did in 
order to fulfil His mission in the power of the Spirit, believ- 
ers must do; and we find His life to have been a life of prayer 
for all the gifts and helps of God, a life of obedience, always 
doing the things that pleased the Father; and so, never left 
alone, a life of faith in the present power of God, a life of 
devotion to the glory of God, so that at its close He, through 
the eternal Spirit, offered Himself without blemish unto God. 

But the chief and all-including condition and proof is the 
desire and purpose to glorify Christ. 

The prayer should not be so much for this or that gift, or 
this or that result, as for Christ Himself to be made manifest 
to us and through us. The Apostle who was most filled with 
the Spirit sums all up in that one great word, "For me to 
live is Christ." As Jesus the Son of God glorified the Father, 
so the sons of God are to glorify Christ. 

The Spirit cannot be where Christ is denied as Redeemer, 
Life and Lord of all. Christ is "the Truth," and the Spirit 
is "the Spirit of the Truth;" all is personal, not ideal, for the 
sum and substance of material' wherewith the Spirit works is 
Christ. The Spirit cannot be teaching if Christ is not seen in 
"the law of Moses, and in the prophets, and in the Psalms," 
as well as in the Gospels, or if Christ is not acknowledged 
to have continued "to do and to teach" in the Acts and in 
the Epistles what He began in the Gospels. 

If Christ is indeed the wisdom of God unto salvation, the 
Holy Spirit alone can demonstrate it unto the minds and 
hearts of men ; and He has no mission in the world separable 
from Christ and His work of redemption. The outer work of 
Christ and the inner work of the Spirit go together. The 
work for us by Christ is through the blood, the work in us 
by the Spirit is through the truth; the latter rests upon the 
former; and without the Spirit, substitutes for the Spirit and 

78 The Fundamentals 

His work will be accompanied by substitutes for Christ and 
His work. The importance, therefore, of the presence and 
work of the Holy Spirit should be estimated according to that 
far-reaching and all-touching word of Christ, "He shall 
glorify Me" (John 16: 13-15). 

To glorify Christ is to manifest Him as supremely excel- 
lent ; to blind the eyes of men to that glory is the purpose of 
the god of this world; therefore, which spirit is at work in 
a man or in a church can easily be told. 

7. In conclusion, the sum of all His mission is to per- 
fect in saints the good work He began, and He molds it all 
according to this reality of a high and holy sonship : He estab- 
lishes the saints in and for Christ. (2 Cor. 1:21.) Accord- 
ing to this reality their life and walk partake of thoughts and 
desires, hopes and objects, unworldly and heavenly. Born of 
God and from above, knowing whence they came and whither 
they are going, they live and move and have their being in a 
world not realized by flesh and blood. 

Their life is hid with Christ in God; their work of. faith 
is wrought out in the unseen abode of the Spirit; their labor 
of love is prompted by a loyal obedience to their Lord, who 
is absent in "a far country" to which both He and they belong ; 
their sufferings are not their own but His, who, from out of 
the Glory could ask, "Why persecutest thou Me?" Their 
worship is of the Father "in spirit and in truth" before the 
mercy seat, "in the light which no man can approach unto;" 
their peace is "the peace of God," which can never be dis- 
turbed by any fear or trouble which eternal ages might dis- 
close; their joy is "joy in the Lord," its spring is in God and 
ever deepening in its perpetual flow ; their hope is the coming 
of the Son of God from heaven and the vision of the King 
in His beauty amidst the unspeakable splendors of His 
Father's house; and through all the way, "thorn and flower," 
by which they are journeying to the heavenly country; it is 
the good Spirit who is leading them. (Isa. 63: 7-14.) 


(Exodus 28:40-43) 


Some years ago, when I resided in Toronto, I went one 
Sabbath morning to attend service at Knox Church, of which 
the Rev. Dr. Henry M. Parsons was pastor. I went to the 
service in a very comfortable state of mind, longing of course, 
for a new blessing, but without any special sense of the kind 
of blessing which I needed. God, however, understood my real 
need, and before the sermon was done that morning my com- 
fort was past and I was in distress of mind and spirit. The 
sermon had been upon a theme connected with the new life 
in Christ, and the Lord had made such a personal application 
of it to me that I felt wholly undone. My situation was 
similar to that of the bride in Solomon's Song who cried: 
"Look not upon me, because I am black, because the sun 
hath looked upon me!" And in that state of heart, I re- 
turned to my home. 

Immediately after dinner that day, I found a quiet place 
in our home where I might be alone with myself and God, for 
I needed to understand myself, \nd above all, to know God's 
purpose for me. And so I meditated and prayed, and prayed 
and meditated. Thus, there was brought to me, at last, the 
consciousness that I was wrong at the center of my life. Not 
that I doubted that I was saved, for I knew that I was a 
Christian; nor that I doubted God's acceptance of me as 
His servant, for I was being daily blessed and used in my 
work for Him; but that my life was an up and down one, 
sometimes in fellowship with God, and sometimes out of fel- 


80 The Fundamentals 

lowship with Him; sometimes praising Him for victory won, 
and more often confessing sin as a result of deplorable de- 
feat. Thus it was that I saw that what I needed was a new 

When I reached this point, I took up my Bible to study the 
subject of consecration. But not knowing where to turn, I 
sought the aid of the concordance, with the intention of work- 
ing out a Bible reading on the subject. Here, however, I met 
with difficulty. There were few passages which referred to 
consecration. But I thought to myself that this did not mat- 
ter, as consecration and sanctification are the same thing, and 
what I could not obtain under one word I should obtain under 
the other. But when I looked at the word sanctification, I 
was in the opposite difficulty, for there were so many passages 
that I knew not what to do with them. It was in this way that 
I turned to a passage which I had noticed, which spoke both of 
consecration and sanctification, namely, Exodus 28 : 40-43, 
and it was thus that I shut myself up to it and prayerfully 
meditated upon it. And I wish to say, that God taught me 
something from this portion of Scripture, that Sabbath after- 
noon, which has never been unlearned, and which has revolu- 
tionized my life. Not that since then I have never known 
spiritual inequality, and have ever walked blamelessly before 
God. Alas! my life has often been marred by failure and 
sin. Nevertheless, I say it to the praise of Christ, that things 
have been different from what they were, and that I have 
possessed a blessed secret of living which I had never pos- 
sessed before. And it is because I have a longing to pass on 
to you the secret which God gave to me that I am writing 
thus personally, and that now, I shall beg to lead you in the 
study of the passage of Scripture referred to. 

The first thing that I noticed in my study is, that conse- 
cration and sanctification are not one and the same thing. 
We are dealing, as I believe, with a verbally inspired Scrip- 
ture, and I observe that the Spirit says, "consecrate and sane- 

Consecration 81 

tify." This signifies to me that consecration and sanctifica- 
tion — I speak from an experimental standpoint — are separate 
things. It is clear that they are closely connected, that one 
precedes the other and leads to the other, and that the other 
follows the one and results from that one. Indeed, one may 
truly say that they are inseparable. At the same time, con- 
secration comes first and sanctification comes second. To put 
it in the form of a picture, consecration is the initial act of 
going through the outer door of a palace, and the subsequent 
acts of passing through other doors in the palace in order to 
occupy the whole and to reach the throne- room of the king; 
and sanctification is the palace itself, the whole of which is 
the home of the king, and where the king may be seen face 
to face. Or, to put it more simply and plainly, consecration 
is an initial act and many subsequent, similar acts ; and sanc- 
tification is the consequent and resultant state. 

The second thing which I noticed is, that the one who was 
to be consecrated had to belong to the right family. There 
were many orders of people in the world at that time. First, 
there were the great nations without; then, there were the 
Israelites in an inner circle; then, there were the Levites at 
large in a more inner circle; then, there were the sons of Aaron 
still nearer the center; and, finally, there was Aaron himself 
at the very center. Now, consecration — in the sense used 
in this passage — was not for the nations, nor for the Israelites, 
nor for the Levites at large. It was only for Aaron and 
Aaron's sons, and the only way, therefore, that a person could 
reach the experience of consecration was by being born into 
that particular family. This suggests, of course, the idea 
of exclusiveness. At the same time, it is more inclusive than 
it appears. For who are the successors of Aaron and Aaron's 
sons ? The answer comes from Rev. 1:5, 6, in John's as- 
cription of praise: "Unto Him that loveth us, and loosed 
us from our sins by His blood, and He made us to be a 
kingdom, to be priests unto His God and Father." Aaron 

82 The Fundamentals 

and his sons were priests. We who believe in Christ are 
likewise priests. Thus we also may be consecrated. 

The third thing which I noticed is, that the person who 
was to be consecrated had to have the right dress on. Moses, 
before he came to the act of consecration, was commanded to 
make linen under and outer garments, and to put these upon 
Aaron and Aaron's sons. These were called the "garments 
for glory and for beauty." And notice the order of the words. 
If Moses, as a mere man, had been writing, he would have 
said, garments for beauty and for glory; but as a Spirit- 
inspired man, he said, "garments for glory and for beauty." 
This is important, for the order of words gives us the clue 
as to what the garments signify. Man ever seeks to put the 
beauty before the glory, for he argues that a person must 
become beautiful in order that he may become glorious. But 
God, as it were, says no, for it is impossible for a man to be- 
come beautiful, and, therefore, it is impossible for him to 
become glorious, and hence, that he must become glorious in 
order that he may become beautiful. In other words, God sees 
only one beauty in this world ; it is the glory of His Christ ; 
and, therefore we must be clothed upon with His glory if 
we are to appear beautiful in His holy presence. These 
thoughts are amply confirmed by a comparison of Rev. 19 : 8, 
and 2 Cor. 5:21: "And to her [the bride] was granted that 
she should be arrayed in fine linen, clean and white, for the 
fine linen is the righteousness of saints." "For He [God] 
hath made Him [Christ] to be sin for us who knew no sin 
that we might be made the righteousness of God in Him." 
In short, if we have faith in Christ, we are clothed with the 
priestly garments, and hence, we may be consecrated. 

The fourth thing which I noticed is, that Aaron and his 
sons, before they were consecrated, had to be anointed. From 
the following chapter, the 20th and 21st verses, we learn what 
this anointing was. First, there was a ram of consecration, 
which was slain in sacrifice. Then, its blood was put upon 

Consecration 83 

the priest's right ear, thumb and toe. And, finally, oil was 
put upon the blood. Note the emblems and the order. It was 
not oil, and no blood ; it was oil and blood. And it was not 
oil and then blood; it was first blood and then oil. In other 
words, there was first the sign of ownership through redemp- 
tion, and after this there was the sign of acceptance for 
priestly service and empowering for that service. But once 
more, the one who believes in Christ has gone through this 
process. The believer is sprinkled with precious blood, and he 
is anointed with holy oil, for we have been bought with a 
price, even with the precious blood of Christ, and we have 
all been baptized by one Spirit into one body. 

Having observed these preliminary conditions, I came at 
last, that Sabbath day, to the thought of consecration itself. 
And here I met with a great surprise. I had, as I thought, a 
fairly clear conception of what consecration was. It was go- 
ing to a consecration meeting and there joining with others 
in giving one's self to God. Or, if that was not enough, it 
was shutting one's self into one's room, and there making 
resolutions and taking vows to put away this and that and to 
take on this and that and so forever be the servant of God. 
But I had glanced at the margin of my Bible and had seen 
opposite the word "consecrate" the three words, "fill their 
hands," and what filling the hands had to do with conse- 
cration I did not know. Thus it was that I read the context 
of the passage and came to the 29th chapter, the 22nd-24th 
verses. And thus it was that I learned what true consecra- 
tion meant, and what it must ever mean. This was what I 
found. Moses, after clothing and anointing Aaron and 
Aaron's sons, took the inward parts of the ram and its right 
shoulder, and also a loaf of bread, a cake of oiled bread, and 
a wafer out of the basket of unleavened bread, and laid all 
of these in the hands of Aaron and Aaron's sons. Then Aaron 
and his sons stood and waved these in the presence of the 
Lord. And as they did this — nothing more and nothing less — 

84 The Fundamentals 

they were consecrated. Do you wonder, when I read this, 
that I was surprised? How different it was from what I 
had imagined. And yet how simple it was. But, simple as 
it is, it is profoundly deep. That ram of consecration sym- 
bolized Christ, for those rich inward parts and that strong, 
right shoulder set forth His eternal deity, and those various 
portions of bread, made from wheat into fine flour, mani- 
fested His matchless humanity. In other words, as those 
priests stood there holding up these several tokens before 
God, they declared— whether they fully understood it or not — 
that their only right in holy presence was through the redemp- 
tion and eternal merit of Another; and that it was in that 
Person's life and glory that they appeared and dedicated 
themselves to priestly ministry. And as God looked down 
from heaven and saw, not them, but the uplifted and inter- 
posed symbols of that Other, of the Christ, He accepted 
Aaron and His sons and consecrated them to holy service. 
And this is what is necessary now. Anything else is high 
presumption and sin, for this is the Divine way of acceptance, 
power and glory. In other words, the watchword of every 
act of consecration is this : "Jesus only !" And do you ask, 
what is the watchword of sanctification ? It is still, "Jesus 
only !" only this time, it is longer drawn out and it covers the 
whole of life. Paul put it thus: "For me to live is Christ!" 
It is for us to put it in the same way. 

But I almost hear some one say : This is old-time doctrine, 
containing old-time ideals; but as for me, I live face to face 
with new-time conditions, where such doctrines and ideals 
are not possible of fulfillment. My reader, I will not argue 
with you. But I beg to suggest to you that you are wrong. 
For first, our passage says: "It shall be a statute forever 
unto him, and his seed after him," and, since, as Christians, 
we are in the priestly line we are also within the privileges of 
the priestly succession. And also, God never repents of His 
gifts and callings, and what He has done once and of old 

Consecration 85 

He is able and ready to do again and now. Moreover, I have 
seen lives, in our own day, lived out wholly for Christ, and 
in the midst of most untoward circumstances, so that I am 
persuaded that such consecration as has been spoken of is 
quite possible for any saint of these present days, even amid 
the undoubtedly difficult conditions which, the present times 
have produced. In closing, then, let me speak of some conse- 
crated lives which I have personally known. 

Mr. Hudson Taylor, while once traveling in China, came 
to a river, and hired a boatman to ferry him across it. Just 
after he had done this, a Chinese gentleman, in silks and 
satins, reached the river and not observing Mr. Taylor, asked 
the boatman to hire the boat to him. This the man refused 
to do, saymg that he had just engaged the boat to the for- 
eigner. At this the Chinese gentleman looked at Mr. Taylor, 
and without a word, dealt him a heavy blow with his fist 
between the eyes. Mr. Taylor was stunned and staggered 
back, but he presently recovered himself, and, looking up, 
saw his assailant standing between himself and the river's 
brink. In an instant Mr. Taylor raised his hands to give 
the man a push into the stream. But in an instant more, he 
dropped his arms at his side. Mr. Taylor then said to the 
gentleman: "You see I could have pushed you into the 
stream. But the Jesus whom I serve would not let me do 
this. You were wrong in striking me, for the boat was mine. 
And since it is mine, I invite you to share it with me and to 
go with me across the river." The Chinese gentleman dropped 
his head in shame, and without a word, he stepped into the 
boat to accept the hospitality thus graciously offered to him. 
Mr. Taylor was a man of naturally quick temper, but evi- 
dently, for him to live was Christ. 

The well-known Rev. James Inglis was pastor of a large 
church in Detroit. He was a graduate of Edinburgh Uni- 
versity and Divinity School, was very learned — he was after- 
wards requested to act with the American New Testament 

86 The Fundamentals 

Revision Committee — he was unusually eloquent, and he was 
having a most successful ministerial career. Indeed, he was 
the most popular preacher in Detroit, if not in Michigan, 
having large audiences on Sundays, with people seated in 
the aisles and upon the pulpit stairs of his church, and with 
his listeners hanging upon his words. One week day, at this 
period, he sat in his study, preparing one of his sermons for 
the following Sunday, when a voice seemed to say to him: 
"James Inglis, whom are you preaching?" Mr. Inglis was 
startled, but he answered: "I am preaching good theology." 
But the Voice seemed to reply : "I did not ask you what you 
are preaching, but whom are you preaching?" My uncle 
answered: "I am preaching the Gospel." But the Voice 
again replied: "I did not ask you what you are preaching; 
I asked you whom are you preaching?" Mr. Inglis sat 
silent and with bowed head for a long time before he again 
replied. When he did, he raised his head and said: "O God, 
I am preaching James Inglis \" And then he added : "Hence- 
forth I will preach no one but Christ, and Him crucified!" 
Then my uncle arose, opened the chest in his study which con- 
tained his eloquent sermons and deliberately put them one 
by one into the fire which was burning in his study stove. 
From that time on he turned his back upon every temptation 
to be oratorical and popular, preached simply and exposition- 
ally, and gave himself in life and words to set forth Jesus 
Christ before men. Later he became the editor of two widely 
read religious papers, and the teacher in the Scripture of 
such men as Dr. Brooks of St. Louis, Dr. Erdman of Phila- 
delphia, Dr. Gordon of Boston, and Mr. Moody of North- 
field. He died in 1872; but his name is still held in reverent 
and grateful remembrance by many of the most spiritual of 
God's saints in America and Europe. Mr. Inglis was by 
nature a man of proud and ambitious disposition; but it is 
manifest that it became true in his Hfe that for him to live 
was Christ. 

Consecration 87 

A friend of mine — whose name I will not give — was a 
business man in one of our great American cities. He was 
an able financier and had become wealthy. Thus it came to 
pass that he was living in a beautiful brown stone house, 
situated on a prominent avenue, and in luxury. At the same 
time he was a Christian, being an elder in a Presbyterian 
church and generally active in good works. It was thus, when 
Mr. Hudson Taylor visited his city in 1888, that my friend 
offered to entertain him. The arrangement was brought to 
pass, and Mr. Taylor was in his home for about a week. 
My friend was thus brought into close contact with a man 
of God, the like of whom he had never before seen. As the 
days went by he was increasingly impressed by the godUness 
and winsomeness of the life before him. Finally, after Mr. 
Taylor had departed to another place, my friend knelt down 
and said to God: "Lord, if Thou wilt make me something 
like that little man I will give Thee everything I've got." 
And the Lord took him at his word. From that time onward 
his spiritual life visibly deepened and developed. At last one 
day he said to his wife: "My dear, don't you think we can 
do with a less expensive house than this, so that we may re- 
duce our living expenses and give more money to the Lord?" 
He then proposed that they should sell the property, build 
a cheaper house, and give what might thus be gained to 
foreign missions. Happily, he had a wife who was a true 
"helpmeet" to him, and she heartily agreed to the proposal. 
So the old property was sold, the new house was built, and 
the sum gained was given to God for His cause abroad. About 
two years later my friend spoke again to his wife on this 
wise: "Dear, I feel badly about this house. The architect 
got me in for more money than I intended to spend on it. 
What do you say to selling it? I have got a lot on an adjacent 
street, and we can build there a cheaper house than this, and 
then we can give the difference to foreign missions." My 
friend's wife was not a woman who liked changes. However, 

88 The Fundamentals 

she loved the Lord, and again she gave a ready assent to the 
proposal. So the first transaction was repeated, a plainer, 
cheaper house was built, and all that was made by the change 
was given to missions. Meanwhile, my friend's general busi- 
ness continued to prosper. Indeed, everything he touched 
seemed to turn into gold. But his personal and family ex- 
penses, by his deliberate choice, were constantly being reduced. 
He never lived meanly. At the same time he lived more and 
more simply. Thus he made money, and thus he saved money. 
Yet all the time he gave and gave to causes at home and 
abroad. And this continued until his death. At the time of 
his death he and his wife were supporting some thirteen 
missionaries, and previously, they had sent to the foreign 
field, providing for outfits and passages, over one hundred 
rfew and older workers. Now my friend, by nature, was a 
man who loved money. It had a fascination for him, both in 
the making of it and in the selfish spending of it. But it is 
manifest that such greediness had been taken out of his life. 
His heart was where his treasure was, and his real treasure 
was in heaven. In other words, he too was able to say : "For 
me to live is Christ!" 

Dear reader, whoever you are, the consecrated life is pos- 
sible and practical. It was for the first century; it is also 
for the twentieth century. It was for early apostles and 
disciples ; it is also for present day missionaries, ministers, lay 
workers and business men. In truth, it is for anybody and 
everybody who is the Lord's. As for you, therefore, but one 
thing is needed. Empty your hands of whatever you> have 
taken up from the world, and then hold up these emptied 
hands to God. And as surely as God is holy, as surely as He 
is loving, as surely as He is gracious. He will fill your, even 
your, hands with Christ. And when you find yourself stand- 
ing thus, holding up Jesus between yourself and God, hiding 
yourself beneath Him, confessing Him to be your only merit, 
glory and power, you too will be consecrated. 



BY REV. E. J. STOBO, JR., B. A., S. T. D., 
smith's falls, ONTARIO, CANADA 

"Paul is the greatest literary figure in the New Testa- 
ment; round him all its burning questions lie." "There is 
nothing more certain in ancient literature than the author- 
ship of the more important of the Pauline epistles." These 
utterances of Dr. Fairbairn in his "Philosophy of the Chris- 
tian Religion" bring us face to face with the apologetic value 
of the writings of the Apostle to the Gentiles. The oldest 
Pauline epistle is divided by little more than twenty years 
from the death of Christ, and by a still shorter interval from 
the Epistle to the Hebrews and Apocalypse; so that Paul's 
interpretation of the Christ has a distinct bearing upon the 
Gospels and later Christian literature. 

In this paper we shall deal only with four epistles which 
are acknowledged by Biblical critics of all schools as undoubt- 
edly genuine ; viz., Galatians, 1 and 2 Corinthians and Romans. 
The four epistles in question have the advantage of being more 
or less controversial in their nature. Debate leads to clearness 
of statement, and we have the advantage of hearing the words 
of Paul as well as of understanding the views of those against 
whom he contends. The controversy in these epistles con- 
cerns the nature and destination of Christianity, and conse- 
quently we may expect to learn what Paul deemed central 
and essential in the Christian faith. There is enough Chris- 
tology in these epistles to show us what Paul thought concern- 
ing the Great Founder of Christianity. Moreover there are, 
in these writings, references to the solemn crisis-experience in 
his spiritual history, and these of necessity have a bearing upon 


90 The Fundamentals 

Luke's letters to Theophilus, which are popularly known as 
the Gospel of Luke and The Acts of the Apostles. With 
such clues to follow we are able to argue for the credibility of 
the other New Testament documents, and also for the ac- 
curacy of the portrait painted of its central figure, the Lord 
Jesus Christ. 

Our first argument has to do with The Apologetic Value 
of the References, in Paul's Epistles, to his Christian Experi- 

His theology is an outgrowth of his experience. His 
thinking is remarkably autobiographical. He resembles Luther 
in this respect as a religious teacher. His thinking is colored 
by the age in which he lives, and in such words as law, right- 
eousness, justification, adoption, flesh, spirit, there is undying 
interest, if we remember the intense, tragic, moral struggle 
lying behind Paul's theology. 

The passages in these four epistles, which exhibit most 
conspicuously the autobiographical character, occur in the first 
chapter of the Epistle to the Galatians and the seventh chapter 
of the Epistle to the Romans. From the former we learn that 
he belonged to a class which was thoroughly antagonistic to 
Jesus. His religion was Judaism. He was an enthusiastic in 
it. He says: "I advanced in the Jew's religion beyond many 
of mine own age among my countrymen, being more exceed- 
ingly zealous for the traditions of my fathers." In other 
words he was a Pharisee of the most extreme type. His 
great aim in life was to become legally righteous, and thus 
all his prejudices were most strongly opposed to the new 
teaching. In the seventh chapter of Romans we learn that 
Paul in time made a great discovery. One of the command- 
ments, the tenth, forbids coveting; and so he learned that a 
mere feeling, a state of the heart, is condemned as sin. In 
that hour his Pharisaism was doomed. "When the com- 
mandment came sin revived and I died." He discovered a 
world of sin within of which he had not dreamed, and legal 

The Apologetic Value of Paul's Epistles 91 

righteousness seemed unattainable. That was a great step 
towards Christianity. He had been trying to satisfy the hun- 
ger of his soul with legal ordinances; he found them chaff, 
not wheat, and so he sought for true nourishment. Eventually 
he became a convert to Christianity. The Pauline letters 
give no detailed account of the memorable event like the nar- 
ratives contained in the Book of the Acts. The main feature 
of the story is referred to in 1 Cor. 15:8 where the Apostle 
enumerates the different appearances of the risen Christ: 
"Last of all He was seen of me also." 

Paul's conversion is one of the hard problems for those 
who undertake to give a purely naturalistic solution of the 
origins of Christianity. All attempts to explain it without 
recognizing the hand of God in it must be futile. He himself 
says devoutly concerning it: "It was the good pleasure of 
God ... to reveal His Son in me." This argues that 
Christianity is a supernatural religion. 

When a religious crisis comes to a man of Paul's type 
it possesses deep significance. For him to become a Christian 
meant everything. It meant to leap into a large cosmopolitan 
idea of Christianity, its nature and destination. He saw that 
all was over with Judaism and its legal righteousness, all over 
with the law itself as a way of salvation ; that salvation must 
come to man through the grace of God, and that it might come 
through that channel to all men alike on equal terms, and 
that therefore the Jewish prerogative was at an end. These 
consequences are all borne out in the biographical notice in 
the first chapters of Galatians. 

It can easily be seen that if the accounts of Paul's con- 
version in the epistles be accepted, they lend support and give 
value to the accounts in the Acts of the Apostles; that the 
consequences of that conversion as previously indicated are 
in entire harmony with the teaching of the latter part of the 
Acts, and so we must come to the conclusion that the con- 
tents of that book are trustworthy whether Luke be the author 

92 The Fundamentals 

or not. And since the Acts of the Apostles purports to be a 
continuation of the Gospel of Luke, we are led to conclude 
that the Gospel must be trustworthy also, and that all the 
Synoptists set forth real facts. Such a conclusion involves 
the historicity of Jesus Christ. 

Our second argument is concerned with Tlie Apologetic 
Value of the References in Paul's Epistles to the Person of 

The conversion of Paul admitted as a fact, we have seen 
that it leads back by degrees to the fact of Christ. But what 
sort of a Christ ? The reader will be struck with the fact that, 
in these Epistles, 

The Earthly Life of the Christ is Represented as Singularly 
Free from the Miraculous. 

He is born of a woman, born under the law (Gal. 4:4) ; 
He springs from Israel, and is, according to the flesh, from 
the tribe of Judah and the seed of David (Rom. 9:5; 1:3); 
He is unknown to the princes of this world (1 Cor. 2:8); 
He is poor, hated, persecuted, crucified (2 Cor. 8:9; Gal. 
6:14; 1 Cor. 1:23-25; 2:2); He is betrayed at night just 
after He has instituted the supper (1 Cor. 15:23) ; He dies 
on the cross, to which He had been fastened with nails, and 
is buried (1 Cor. 15: 3, 4). This account it will be seen is at 
one with that of the Synoptists, with the exception that we 
do not hear of a supernatural birth, nor is there any emphasis 
placed upon supernatural works. In its main outlines the por- 
trait of the man Jesus agrees perfectly with that of the Synop- 
tic Gospels, and lends credence to the history of the Galilean 
Prophet. On the other hand 

Christ is Represented as a Being of Ideal Majesty. 

The doctrine of Christ's person as found in these four 
great epistles is no mere theological speculation ; it is the out- 
growth of religious experience. Jesus was, for Paul, the Lord 
because He was the Saviour. Four leading truths with refer- 
ence to Christ are brought into prominence in his writings : 

The Apologetic Value of Paul's Epistles 93 

A. In Relation to Time. He is God's Son who was 
"born of the seed of David according to the flesh". On the 
side of His humanity our Lord "was born." (Rom. 1 : 2.) 
That nature begins only then. He is possessed of another 
nature that dates back long before the incarnation. He is in 
a peculiar sense God's "own Son" (Rom. 8:32), belonging 
to Him above all others, or as Alford well says, "His vios 
^ovoyev^s, the only one of God's Sons who is one with Him 
in nature and essence, begotten of Him before all worlds. 
This Son was delivered up for us all. This idea is hinted at 
in 2 Cor. 8:9: "Ye know the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
that though He was rich, yet for your sakes He became poor," 
and finds full expression in the Epistle to the Philippians 
(2:5-9), concerning which there is very little controversy. 
The straggling hints we have in the four great epistles confirm 
the teaching of the Letter to the Philippians, and above all 
the classic statement of the Fourth Gospel: "In the beginning 
was the Word." 

B. In Relation to Man.. Paul says Christ was "made of 
a woman" (Gal. 4:4), and that He was sent into the world 
"in the likeness of sinful flesh" (Rom. 8:3); that is. He 
came into the world by birth and bore to the eye the aspect 
of any ordinary man. But though Christ came in the like- 
ness of sinful flesh. He was not a sinner. He "knew no sin" 
(2 Cor. 5:21). The mind that was in Him before He came 
ruled His life after He came. However, Paul regards the 
resurrection as constituting an important crisis in the experi- 
ence of Christ. Thereby He was declared to be the Son of 
God with power (Rom. 1:4), "the man from heaven" (1 
Cor. 15 : 47) ; and yet to Paul, Jesus is a real man, a Jew 
with Hebrew blood in His veins, a descendant of David. The 
portrait thus painted agrees perfectly with that of the Evan- 
gelists who depict Him as a real man, but, in some strange 
fashion, different from other men. "His soul was like a 
star and dwelt apart." 

94 The Fundamentals 

The Son of David was, for Paul, moreover, "The second 
man" (1 Cor. 15:47). This title points out Christ as one 
who has, for His vocation, to undo the mischief wrought by 
the transgression of the first man. Hence He is called, in 
sharp contrast to the first man Adam, "a quickening spirit" 
(1 Cor. 15:45). As the one brought death into the world, 
so the other brings life (1 Cor. 15:22); and this teaching 
agrees with the declaration of the Synoptists: "The Son of 
Man is come to seek and to save that which was lost;" 
"Thou shalt call His name Jesus, for He shall save His 
people from their sins." 

C. In Relation to the Universe. He is represented in the 
Epistle to the Colossians as the Firstborn of all creation, as 
the Originator of creation as well as its final cause, all things 
in heaven and on earth visible and invisible, angels included, 
being made by Him and for Him (Col. 1 : 15-16). This goes 
beyond anything found in the four great epistles, yet we 
may find rudiments of a cosmic doctrine even in these let- 
ters. For Paul it was an axiom that the universe has its 
final aim in Christ its King. ( See 1 Cor. 8:6.) 

D. In Relation to God. Paul applies two titles to Christ, 
"the Son of God" and "the Lord." Both of these titles are 
combined in the introduction of the Epistle to the Romans, 
"His Son, Jesus Christ, our Lord." He is "declared to be the 
Son of God with power, according to the Spirit of holiness, 
by a resurrection of the dead" (Rom. 1:4). The most con- 
vincing proof of the divinity of Christ Paul found in the 
resurrection. Writing to the Corinthians he says: "If Christ 
hath not been raised then is our preaching vain — your faith 
is vain, ye are yet in your sins" (1 Cor. 15:14-17). He 
submits to them the proof of his Apostleship in the fact 
that he has seen "Jesus our Lord" (1 Cor. 9:1). He tells 
the Galatians that his gospel came "through revelation of 
Jesus Christ" (Gal. 1:12), and that Gospel, according to 
1 Cor. 15:3-8, contains five elementary facts: 1, Christ died 

The Apologetic Valtie of Paul's Epistles 95 

for our sins; 2, He was buried; 3, He rose on the third day; 
4, He appeared to many disciples, and 5, Last of all, He ap- 
peared to Paul himself. These are the things that are vital 
in Paul's preaching. When we remember that, as a Pharisee, 
his prejudices were all against the Gospel, we must come to 
the conclusion that Paul's testimony argues most strongly 
for the historicity of the resurrection and the truths involved 

It may not be out of place to re-iterate what has already 
been stated regarding Paul's use of the expression, "His 
own Son," in Rom. 8 : 3. This passage deals with the broth- 
erhood of sons. Jesus, amid the multitudes having the right 
to call themselves sons of God, is an unique figure, towering 
above them all. In 2 Cor. 4:4 it is stated that Christ is 
the image of God, and in Rom. 8 : 29 it is said that the des- 
tiny of believers is to be conformed to the image of God's 
Son. The ideal for Christians is to bear the image of Christ. 
For Christ Himself is reserved the distinction of being the 
image of God. This throws a side light upon Paul's idea of 
Christ's sonship. 

He is represented as the one Lord by whom or on account 
of whom are all things (1 Cor. 8:6). According as SI oi or 
Si ov is accepted as the reading, Jesus is the Creator of all things 
or furnishes the Divine reason for creation. The groaning of 
the creation in labor for the brnging forth of a new redeemed 
world is a graphic picture of the relation of Christ's redemp- 
tive work to the physical universe. (Rom. 8:22.) It is 
true that this teaching goes beyond that of the Gospels in 
some particulars, but it agrees with John's Gospel when it 
teaches the creatorship of the Logos. (John 1 : 3.) 

In 1 Cor. 8:5, 6, the term "Lord" gains equal significance 
to that of "Son". In view of pagan polytheism, the Apostle 
sets one real fleos over against the many 6eoi Aeyo/tcvoi of pagan- 
ism, and one real Lord over against its Kvpioi ttoWoL It would 

96 The Fundamentals 

seem by this inscription that the Apostle desired to introduce 
Christ into the sphere of the truly Divine. 

The famous benediction at the close of the Second Epistle 
to the Corinthians impHes a very high conception of Christ's 
person and position. One could scarcely believe that Paul 
would use such a collocation of phrases as the grace of the 
Lord Jesus, the love of God and the fellowship of the Holy 
Spirit, unless Christ had been for him a Divine Being, even 
God. Now all this simply adds force to John's prologue: 
"In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with 
God, and the Word was God.'' 

The four great Pauline epistles agree, in the most im- 
portant details, with the portraiture given us of Jesus in the 
Gospels. The conception of the person of Christ, as we have 
already shown, was not natural to Paul. He was a bitter op- 
ponent of Christianity. It was not the result of gradually 
changing convictions regarding the claims of Jesus Christ — all 
the testimony which bears upon the subject implies the con- 
trary. It was not due to extreme mysticism, for Paul's writ- 
ings impress us as being remarkably sane and logical. No 
endeavor to account for it upon merely natural grounds is 
satisfactory, and so we must accept his own statement of the 
case. The truth of the Messiahship of Jesus was a matter 
of revelation in the experience of his conversion, and if we 
accept that, we must necessarily accept all that it involves. 
The Gospels and Epistles do not contradict, but only supple- 
ment this protraiture. They add lines of beauty to the rugged 
outline painted by Paul, and are inextricably connected with 
the four great epistles. Accepting these letters as genuine 
and Paul's explanation of his doctrine as true, we must ac- 
cept the whole of the New Testament documents as credible, 
and the portraiture of the Christ as that of a real person — 
Son of man and Son of God, the God-Man. 




I. The Bible is the Only Book That Can Make Us Wise 
unto Salvation. 

The Bible is not a book to be studied as we study geology 
and astronomy, merely to find out about the earth's formation 
and the structure of the universe; but it is a book revealing 
truth, designed to bring us into living union with God. We 
may study the physical sciences and get a fair knowledge of 
the facts and phenomena of the material universe; but what 
difference does it make to us, as spiritual beings, whether the 
Copernican theory of the universe is true, or that of Ptolemy ? 
On the other hand, the eternal things of God's Word do so 
concern us. Scientific knowledge, and the words in which 
that knowledge is conveyed, have no power to change our 
characters, to make us better, or give us a living hope of a 
blessed immortality; but the Word of God has in it a vital 
power, it is "quick and powerful" — living and full of Divine 
energy (Heb. 4: 12) — and when received with meekness into 
our understanding and heart is able to save our souls (Jas. 
1 : 18, 21), for it is the instrument of the Holy Spirit where- 
with He accomplishes in us regeneration of character. The 
Word of God is a living seed containing within itself God's 
own life, which, when it is received into our hearts, springs 
up within us and "brings forth fruit after its kind ;" for Jesus 
Christ, the eternal Word of God, is the living germ hidden 
in His written Word. Therefore it is written, "The words 
that I speak unto you, they are spirit and they are life" (John 


98 The Fundamentals 

6:63), and so it is that "he that heareth My words" — that is, 
receiveth them into good and honest hearts — that heareth the 
Word and understandeth it, "hath everlasting life" (John 
5 : 24). Of no other book could such things as these be said. 
Hence we say, the Word of God is the instrument in His 
hand to work in us and for us regeneration and salvation; 
"for of His own will begat He us with the Word of truth, 
the engrafted Word, which is able to save your souls" (Jas. 
1:18, 21). 

This leads us to say that we are related to God and the 
eternal verities revealed in this Book, not through intellectual 
apprehension and demonstration, but by faith. Not by reason- 
ing, but by simple faith, do we lay hold on these verities, 
resting our faith in God, who is under and in every saving 
fact in the Book. (See 1 Pet. 1 : 21.) It seems to me, there- 
fore, to be the supreme folly for men to be always speculating 
and reasoning about these spiritual and revealed things; and 
yet we meet constantly even good people who are thus deal- 
ing with God's Word. First of all, they treat the revelation 
as though it were only an opinion expressed concerning the 
things revealed, and so they feel free to dissent from or 
receive it with modification, and deal with it as they would 
with the generalizations and conclusions, more or less accurate, 
of the scientists, and the theories, more or less true, of the 
philosophers. If the Word commends itself to their judgment 
they accept it; thus making their judgment the criterion of 
truth, instead of submitting their opinions to the infallible 
Word of God. It is not seldom that we hear a person say 
they believe the Word of God to be true; and then the very 
next instant, when pressed by some statement or declaration 
of that Word, they say, "Ah ! but then / believe so and so" — 
something entirely different from what God has declared. 
Then again, many people who profess to believe God's Word 
seem never to think of putting themselves into practical and 
saving relation to it. They believe that Jesus Christ is the 

What the Bible Contains for the Believer 99 

Saviour of the world, but they never believe on Him or in 
Him; in other words, that He is a Saviour to them. 

God's Book is full of doctrines and promises. We declare 
them, and some one says, "You must prove that doctrine or 
that promise to be true." The only way to prove a doctrine 
to be true is by a personal experience of it through faith in 
Jesus Christ. Jesus Christ says, "Ye must be born again." 
Should you attempt to master the meaning and power of that 
doctrine by mere speculation, you would presently land just 
where Nicodemus did, and say, "How can these things be?" 
Instead of doing so, suppose you attend further to what is 
said, namely, "Whosoever believeth is born of God" (1 John 
5:1; John 1: 12, 13). In obedience to this Divine teaching, 
not knowing how it is to be done in us, we take that Word 
and yield ourselves to Jesus Christ; and lo! there dawns 
upon us an experience that throws light upon all that which 
before was a mystery. We have experienced no physical 
shock, but a great change is wrought in us, especially in our 
relation to God. "Old things are passed away, and behold 
all things are become new" (2 Cor. 5: 17). Thus we come 
into an experimental understanding of the doctrine of the 
new birth. So every other doctrine pertaining to the spiritual 
life is by God's grace transmuted into experience. For just 
as a word stands for an idea or thought, so the doctrines of 
God stand for experiences; but the doctrine must be received 
before the experience can be had. And, moreover, we are to 
receive all doctrines, all truth, through faith in Him, for 
Christ and His Word are inseparable, just as a man's note is 
only current and valuable because the man is good. A bank- 
note is received in the faith of the bank it represents. Should 
the bank fail, the note instantly becomes worthless. 

But there are some things revealed in the Word of God 
which we believe without experience. For instance, we 
believe that this "vile body" (Phil. 3:21), dishonored by sin 
and upon the neck of which death will soon put his foot, will 

100 The Fundamentals 

in the day of "His appearing and kingdom" (2 Tim. 4:1; 
1 Thess. 4: 15) be raised, changed and fashioned like unto His 
glorious body (Phil. 3:21). Do you know how we can so 
surely believe these things? We answer, because God has 
proved to us so much of His Word that when He announces 
something yet to be made true, on the basis of past experience 
we reach out toward and accept as true the promise of the 
future things. Indeed, He already makes it true in our 
hearts, for "faith is the substance of things hoped for" (Heb. 
11:1). For even here we have a present spiritual experience 
which is as an earnest to us of the culmination yet future; 
for we are already risen with Christ. (Col. 2:13; 3:1; 
Eph. 2:5, 6; Rom. 8:11.) 

2. The Bible Contains in Itself the Absolute Guarantee 
of Our Inheritance in Christ. 

Suppose we should come to you some day and call in 
question your ownership of your house, and demand that 
you give it up — a homestead bequeathed to you by your father. 
"Why do you make such a demand upon me?" you ask. 
"Because," we reply, "it is not your house ; you have no right 
to it ; at least you do not know that it is yours." "Oh, yes," 
you reply, "I am quite sure it is my house." "How do you 
know? What is your reason for believing it is your house?" 
"Why, because my father lived here before me." "That is 
no good reason." "Well, I have lived here undisputed for 
five years myself." "It does not hence follow that the house 
is yours." "But I am very happy in it ; I enjoy myself here." 
"Well, but my dear sir, that you may do, and still have no 
right to it." At last, pushed to the wall, you take us with you 
down to the court-house, and show us your father's will, 
duly written, signed, sealed and recorded. This may serve to 
illustrate the point. A great many Christians are at a loss 
where and how to ground their "title." It is not in the fact 
that you are a descendant of a saintly father, a child of 
believing parents, for, as old Matthew Henry says, "Grace 

What the Bible Contains for the Believer 101 

does not run in the blood ;" nor is it that you have member- 
ship in the visible Church of Christ ; nor is it to be found in 
delightful frames and feelings — in a word, not even a genuine 
Christian experience constitutes your "title-deed." Where 
then are we to bottom our hope? Why, just in the naked 
bare Word of God. It is written, "Verily, verily, I say unto 
you, he that heareth My words, and believeth on Him that 
sent Me hath everlasting life," etc. (John 5:24). Straight 
to the record do we appeal for a final test as to our possession 
in God. "This is the record, that God hath given to us eternal 
life, and this life is in His Son. He that hath the Son hath 
life; and he that hath not the Son of God hath not life" 
(1 John 5: 11, 12). Our faith lays hold on the Son of God, 
in whom we have redemption (Eph. 1:7) by means of and 
through the recorded Word of promise, for this record was 
"written, that ye might believe that Jesus is the Christ, the 
Son of God; and that believing ye might have life through 
His name" (John 20: 31). The Scriptures are the covenants, 
old and new, in which God has guaranteed to us, by word 
and oath (Heb. 6:17, 18), sealed with the blood of Jesus 
Christ (Matt. 26:28), an inheritance among the saints. We 
do not emphasize this point in any wise to underrate Christian 
experience (for it is most blessed and true), or undervalue 
the blessing of believing parents, or the Church and her 
ordinances, but only to draw your attention to "the more sure 
Word of prophecy" (2 Pet. 1 : 19), which is better to us for 
confirmation than visions and voices, frames and feelings, 
parental benedictions, and church sacraments. 

3. The Word of God is the Means Appointed for the 
Culture of Our Christian Life. 

James tells us (1 : 18) that the Word of truth is the instru- 
ment of our regeneration, and Jesus tells us that the truth 
not only "makes us free," but prays the Father that we may 
be "sanctified through the truth" (John 6:32-36; 17:17-19). 
And Paul tells us, in words which the Holy Ghost teacheth, 

102 The Fundamentals 

that "Christ loved the church, and give Himself for it, that 
He might sanctify and cleanse it with the washing of water 
by the Word," etc. (Eph. 5:25, 27). "This is the will of 
God, even your sanctification" (1 Thess. 4:3), for God hath 
not called us to uncleanness, but unto holiness (1 Thess. 4:7). 
After regeneration, nothing can be more important than this. 
We are told in the Bible and we believe it — that by and by we 
shall be in another state of existence — in heaven in the pres- 
ence of the loving and glorified Jesus; that we shall see His 
face, and His name shall be on our foreheads (Rev. 22:4), 
that we shall be with the angels, an innumerable company, 
and with the spirits of just men made perfect, the saints of 
all ages (Heb. 12:23), that we shall know them and be in 
their society (Matt. 17:3; 1 Cor. 13:12), that we shall be 
absolutely untainted with sin, as glorious as the uncreated 
light of God. (Rev. 21 : 4, 27 ; Matt. 13 : 45.) This being the 
place and the company toward which we are being borne 
along so rapidly, we want to be prepared for both place and 

Ah, friends, you are anxious to be cultured for this world 
and its "best society," in its knowledge, in its customs, and in 
its manners. Yes, you lavish time and money upon yourself 
and your children, in order that they may be furnished with 
the accomplishments and culture of this world. You say 
when you appear in good society you want to be at ease, to 
be a peer among the most 'accomplished, and you wish the 
same for your children. Were you invited to go six months 
hence to take up your abode at the Court of St. James, as 
the guest of England's noble king, you would ransack all the 
books at your command that treated of court etiquette and 
manners ; you would brush up in English history, so that you 
might not be taken unawares either in ybur knowledge of the 
affairs of the country, or in court ceremonial. But in a little 
while we are going to the court of the King immortal, eternal, 
in the kingdom of glory. We know not the day nor the hour 

What the Bible Contains for, the Believer 103 

when the Lord will come, or call us hence; and we want to 
be ready, both as to purity of character and the courtly 
culture of the heavenly city. We wish to be familiar with 
the history of redemption, and with the mysteries of the 
kingdom. We should not want to appear as an awkward 
stranger in our Father's house of light. We can only get 
this sanctification of character and culture of life and manner 
by constant familiarity and communion with God and the 
saints through the Word. 

Men of the world are anxious that they, or, it may be, 
that their children, should appear well in the society of this 
world. To this end they devote themselves and them to the 
schools of the world and fashion; the dancing-school and the 
academy, they fancy, is the only place where polite manners 
and courtly grace may be acquired. Believers, too, are anxious 
that their children should be cultured and accomplished in 
every way worthy of being the King's sons or daughters, as 
by grace they are. But they should not think of seeking for 
them the entree of what is called in this world the "best 
society", or sending them to fashionable finishing-schools and 
dancing-academies, in order to such end. If they may have 
their hearts filled with the dear, great love of God, and the 
sweet grace of Christ; if they hang on the chamber walls of 
their souls as pictures, "Whatsoever things are honest, just, 
pure, lovely and of good report, and think on these things" 
(Phil. 4:8); if they journey through this world in companion- 
ship with Him; if the Holy Spirit guides them through the 
Word, as Bunyan's Pilgrim was led through the "house of 
the interpreter," and shows them wonderful and beautiful 
things out of His law; if the fruit of the Spirit, which "is 
love, joy, peace, long-suffering, gentleness, goodness, faith, 
meekness, and temperance" (Gal. 5 : 22, 23), adorns their lives 
and characters — Christians are not then afraid that their 
children will be a whit behind the foremost society people in 
the land in culture of mind and heart, and grace of manner.. 

104 The Fundamentals 

Ah ! there is a heavenly culture and a Divine grace of manner 
that far transcend anything found in the schools of this world. 
Only a Christian could think of saying with Paul, standing 
before his judge, "except these bonds" (Acts 26:29). 

John Bunyan, locked up for twelve years in Bedford Jail, 
with his Bible and concordance for his constant companions, 
produced and sent forth to the world his immortal dream, 
written with such beauty of style and in such chaste and 
simple manner, as to make it classic in English literature. So 
perfect and matchless was the intellectual and spiritual culture 
of this unlearned "tinker of Elstow," that the scholarly John 
Owen testified before the King, "Your Majesty, if I could 
write as does that tinker in Bedford Jail I would gladly lay 
down all my learning." Where did John Bunyan get his 
culture? In glorious fellowship with Moses in the Law, with 
David in the Psalms, with Isaiah and the prophets and holy 
men of God, who wrote as they were moved by the Holy 
Spirit ; with Matthew, Mark, Luke and John ; with Paul, Peter 
and all the rest who wrote and spoke not the thoughts, nor 
in the words, of man's wisdom, but God's thoughts, and in 
words which the Holy Spirit giveth. Read Homer and Milton, 
Shakespeare and Dante; read Bacon, Macaulay, Addison and 
Carlyle; go through all the best literature of all ages, and it 
will fall infinitely short of the purity, beauty and grandeur 
of thought and expression found in God's Word. 

Goethe, who said he was "not Christian," has declared of 
the canonical Gospels: "The human mind, no matter how 
much it may advance in intellectual culture, and in the extent 
and depth of the knowledge of nature, will never transcend 
the high moral culture of Christianity as it shines and glows 
in the canonical Gospels." Renan, the French infidel author, 
concludes his life of Jesus with these remarkable words: 
"Whatever may be the surprises of the future, Jesus will never 
be surpassed; His worship will grow young without ceasing; 
His legend will call forth tears without end ; His suffering 

What the Bible Contains for the Believer 105 

will melt the noblest hearts ; all ages will proclaim that among 
the sons of men there is none bom greater than Jesus." And 
Strauss, the rationalistic German author of the "Life of 
Jesus," says: "Jesus presents within the sphere of religion 
the culminating point, beyond which posterity can never go; 
yea, which it cannot even equal. He remains the highest 
model of religion within the reach of our thought, and no 
perfect piety is possible without His presence in the heart." 
Thus the power of the "Book and the Person" for the highest 
culture of the highest nature of man, is affirmed by the great 
apostle of modern culture, and by those who do not admit the 
Divine origin of the Scriptures, or the deity of Him of whom 
they are from first to last the witness. If, then, you want to 
know how to serve God and do His will on the earth, and be 
thoroughly prepared and cultured for heaven hereafter, take 
His Word, and make it the rule and companion of your life. 

4. The Bible is the Christian's Armory. 

The Christian's calling in the world is that of a soldier. 
He must fight the good fight of faith. ( 1 Tim. 6 : 12 ; 2 Tim. 
4:7.) V Sinners are to be won from the power of the devil 
to God. Their intelligence, their wills, and their affections, 
are to be stormed and carried for Him ; they are to be turned 
from the power of darkness to light; their prison-houses of 
sin are to be broken into; their chains knocked off and the 
captives set free (Acts 26:16-18). We also, in our own 
Christian life and pilgrimage, are set upon by the powers of 
darkness; by the fiery darts of the devil. Doubts, infidelity, 
temptations, evil imaginations, unclean, unholy, and vain 
thoughts assail us, poured in upon our souls by Satan, the 
lusts of the flesh being thus set on fire of hell, if by this 
means the child of God may be overtaken in a fault or over- 
come by sin. But this warfare is not carnal, or after the 
manner of the flesh. "For though we walk in the flesh [have 
our lives as other men do in fleshly bodies] we do not war 
after the flesh: (for the weapons of our warfare are not 

106 The Fundamentals 

carnal, but mighty through God to the pulling down of strong- 
liolds) ; casting down imaginations [reasonings] and every 
high thing [lofty edifice] which is being raised against the 
knowledge of God, and bringing into captivity every thought 
in obedience to Christ" (2 Cor. 10:3-5). Just as Joshua 
went up against Jericho, and took its strongholds and high 
towers, and cast them down and made captive the city, not 
with carnal weapons, but with trumpets of rams' horns (Josh. 
6), so we, proceeding against the strongholds, imaginations, 
and infidel arguments of men, are to take the Gospel trump. 
The sword we are to wield is the "Word of God, the sword 
of the Spirit" (Eph. 6: 17) which makes him who wields it 
invincible. The Bible itself must be brought out, not only 
as the best defense against all the assaults of infidelity from 
the lofty towers of human reasonings, but also as the mighty 
weapon to overcome and bring the enemies of God into cap- 
tivity to Christ. "They overcame by the blood of the Lamb 
and the word of their testimony" (Rev. 12: 11). "Wherefore 
take unto you the whole armor of God ; having your loins girt 
about with truth; and having on the breatsplate of righteous- 
ness, and your feet shod with the preparation of the Gospel 
of peace; and above all, taking the shield of faith, whereby 
ye shall be able to quench all the fiery darts of the wicked; 
and take the helmet of salvation and the sword of the Spirit, 
which is the Word of God" (Eph. 6: 13-17). We have only 
to recall how our Saviour overcame the devil with the all- 
prevailing weapon, "It is written," in order that we may be 
furnished with the secret of successful warfare for Him. 

Very often Christians, young and old, come to us in the 
"inquiry room" and say, "Won't you come and talk with this 
friend of mine?" "Why don't you talk with him (or her) 
yourself?" we reply. "Because I don't know what to say to 
him, and, besides, you know more of the Bible." "Well, why 
don't you know more of the Bible?" To this, various answers 
are given. At any rate we meet here one grave mistake. An 

IVhat the Bible Contains for the Believer 107 

ignorance of the Bible, which not only furnishes us with our 
spiritual weapons, but "thoroughly furnishes us unto all good 
works" (2 Tim. 3: 17), leads many earnest Christians to the 
doubtful use of their own argumentation in dealing with 
their own and others' souls. It is a hopeless task to pull down 
the strongholds of the unregenerated mind and heart with 
anything less than these Divine weapons. But all may equip 
themselves from this great armory. The Bible contains ideas 
which no philosophy or human theory can furnish, and there- 
fore puts us in possession of weapons which the enemy cannot 
withstand when hard pushed by them, re-inforced as they 
are by the invisible and mighty presence of the Holy Spirit, 
and which renders us impregnable to the assaults of the 
adversary. Of this mighty power of the Word and Spirit of 
God we have a splendid example in the case of Stephen, and 
other early disciples, whose words, drawn from the Scripture, 
the Jews could not withstand. We have never yet met an 
infidel or atheist whose arguments we could not turn aside 
when depending simply on the Word of God. Nay, more, we 
have never yet met one in the "inquiry rooms" who has been 
able to withstand God's Word and the mighty facts of the 
Bible, when, in humble dependence upon God we have set 
them in array before him. If you know God's thoughts and 
seek to be guided by the Holy Spirit, He will say out of your 
mouth the right word at the right time, both to ward off an 
assault and to strike a telling blow for the truth. And amidst 
all this warfare, the light and love and gentleness of Jesus 
Christ will so shine out in your bearing and manner that they 
will be convinced of your sincerity, and God will give you the 

5. The Bible is a Perfect Map and Chart to the Christian 
on Pilgrimage Through the World. 

With God's Word in hand and heart you may tread your 
way with perfect safety and confidence through all the 
labyrinths of this world. The straight and narrow way is 

108 The Fundamentals 

so clearly and sharply marked that he who runs may read. 
It is a highway (unseen, it may be, by the worldling) in 
which a wayfaring man, though a fool, need not err (Isa. 
35:8), for it is everywhere marked by His commandments. 
More than that, we have an unseen Guide, even the Spirit 
of Truth, who leads us, and says to us, in places of doubt 
or uncertainty, "This is the way, walk ye in it" (Isa. 30:21). 
Thus, a pilgrim and a stranger, you may keep your onward 
way to the city of God in safety and confidence, following in 
the light of the Word, which is "a lamp to your feet, and a 
light unto your path" (Psa. 119: 105), the path that no one 
knoweth save He that leadeth thee. Yea, and you will find 
that the way, over hills and through valleys, shines more and 
more unto the perfect day. ( Prov. 4 : 18.) The Word of God is 
a chart that marks all the rocks and reefs in the sea of life; 
if we heed, and sail our frail bark by it, we shall come safely 
into the haven of rest at last. But if we are heedless and 
proud, and self-sufficient in our own conceits, we shall make 
shipwreck of our faith. A young lieutenant in the English 
navy discovered a small but dangerous rock in the Mediter- 
ranean, never before known, and reported it to the admiralty. 
It was telegraphed to all the stations, and ordered to be put 
down on all the charts. The first ship to sail over the spot 
was under command of an old captain, who, noting the warning 
newly placed on his chart, desired to know by whom the rock 
was reported. On being informed he replied: "There is no 
such rock there. I have sailed over this sea for twenty years, 
and if such a rock had been there I would have found it." 
And then in his pride and conceit he gave orders to his sailing- 
master to steer directly over the spot indicated. The gallant 
ship was driven over the danger spot under full sail. There 
was a tremendous crash, and the noble vessel went down with 
all hands. Many a Christian suflFers shipwreck through un- 
heeding conceit or neglect of his infallible chart. May the 

What the Bible Contains for the Believer 109 

Holy Spirit incline us to study diligently our Divine chart, 
and sail closely by it ! 

6. The Bible Reveals Things to Come. 

It contains not only the history of the past, of God's 
dealings with nations, but it also contains much unfulfilled 
prophecy. Revelation is a book devoted to things that "must 
shortly come to pass." Prophecy has been called unacted 
history, and history is but fulfilled prophecy. It is a mistake 
to suppose that God's hand in history has been limited to those 
nations mentioned in the Bible. Could we have the story of 
God in history, it would be seen that His providence has been 
in and over all the great and small events of all nations. 
Daniel in his great prophecy has given a rapid and graphic 
sketch of the course of history from the golden-headed 
Babylonian Empire down to the end of time, when the "Son 
of man shall come with the clouds of heaven" . . . when 
there "shall be given Him dominion and glory, and a kingdom, 
that all nations and languages should serve Him." When He 
comes, "His dominion will be an everlasting dominion which 
' shall not pass away, and His kingdom one which shall not be 
destroyed" (Dan. 2:44; 7:13-27). Meantime God among 
nations will be overturning, and "overturning, and overturning 
until He comes whose right it is" (Ezek. 21 : 27). The Book 
of Revelation is a detailed exposition of the second and 
seventh chapters of Daniel, and the two books should be read 

Emperors and kings and cabinets are rapidly bringing to 
pass things that God has marked out in prophecy ages ago. 
But they know not what they do. There are "signs in the 
heavens," and on the earth there is "distress of nations with 
perplexity; and the sea and the waves roaring; men's hearts 
failing them for fear, and for looking after those things which 
are coming on the earth ; for the powers of the heavens shall 
be shaken. And then shall they see the Son of man coming 
in a ck)ud, with power and great glory" (Luke 21:25-27). 

110 The Fundamentals 

Of the day and hour when the flaming heavens shall reveal 
the "appearing and kingdom" of our Lord Jesus Christ (2 
Tim. 4 : 1 ) , no man knoweth ; but we are bidden to wait and 
be ready, lest we be surprised by the great and notable day 
of the Lord. To this end the Scriptures are also written, that 
the loving student of them may live in advance of history, 
and be overtaken by no untoward event. If His prophetic 
Word dwell richly in our hearts and minds, there will be no 
great surprise for us as time goes on. We shall discern 
through the prophetic telescope, dimly, it may be, the ap- 
proaches of those things out of which history is made. 
Should it be our blessed lot to be "alive, and remain unto the 
coming of the Lord" (1 Thess. 4: 15) we shall see the sign of 
Him in the heavens (Matt. 24:30) before the startled and 
amazed world, lying in sin and mocking unbelief (2 Pet. 3:3; 
Luke 18:8), are overwhelmed in that "everlasting destruction 
from the presence of the Lord and from the glory of His 
power" (2 Thess. 1:7-9). We know that there is a growing 
disposition on the part of many excellent Christians to make 
light (they know not what they do) of all prophetic study; 
but our risen Lord, in His last revelation to John concerning 
things to come, caused him to write at the very outset: 
"Blessed is he that readeth and they that hear the words of 
this prophecy; and keep those things which are written 
therein ; for the time is at hand ;" and at the close of the book 
to add: "These sayings are faithful and true; and the Lord 
God of the holy prophets sent His angel to show unto His 
servants^ the things which must shortly be done. Behold I 
come quickly; blessed is he that keepeth the sayings of the 
prophecy of this book" (Rev, 22:6, 7). 

May the Spirit of God give us a mind to study His Word 
reverently and believingly with a prepared heart, as did Ezra 
(7:10), in the light and under the guidance of the Holy 
Spirit. Then will He "show us things to come" (John 16:13). 





Modern Spiritualism claims as its birthday March 31, 1848, 
and the place of its birth Hydesville, Wayne County,. New- 
York, U. S. A. ; but it is in reality almost as old as the world's 
history, and will go on to its close. 

That the number of adherents of Modern Spiritualism is 
amazingly large is borne out by Dr. F. Maack, of Hamburg, 
writing so recently as 1910. As an antagonist of Spiritualism, 
he is not likely to overstate the numbers. In Berlin alone, 
he says, there are probably 10,000 Spiritualists, among them 
exalted and court personages ; 400 mediums, and from fifteen 
to twenty societies. In North America there are said to be 
16,000,000 adherents; while in the whole world it was com- 
puted that in 1894 there were 60,000,000 Modern Spiritualists, 
with 200 journals exclusively devoted to the propaganda of this 
awful system. The number has grown considerably since. 
Add to these the demonized races of the heathen world ; the 
millions of China, Japan and India; the countless tribes of 
Africa; the savage hordes of the Sudan; the cannibal inhab- 
itants of the South Sea Islands ; and you complete roughly the 
picture of Spiritualism covering the earth with darkness — 
Ancient Spiritualism in the East, and Modern Spiritualism in 
the West, bringing in its train wickedness of every hideous 

♦Condensed for the Fundamentals. 


112 The Fundamentals 


Spiritualism, like all systems of error, works to a large 
extent underground. It does not present itself in its true col- 
ors to the uninitiated. Once a dupe is caught in its toils he 
is drawn farther and farther away from God. 

Some are attracted to it through sheer curiosity. The 
love of the unknown allures them. Some, believing it to be 
mere trickery, think they can detect the fraud, and so get 
entangled in the real thing. That there is trickery in it is 
certain; but with full allowance for all this, there are effects 
produced which can be attributed only to the influence of 
personating demons. Others again are drawn into it by the 
deep desire to fill the aching void made by the death of a 
loved one. When David, after agonizing prayer for the life 
of Bathsheba's child, heard of his death, he asked, "Can I 
bring him back again? I shall go to him, BUT HE SHALL 
NOT RETURN TO ME" (2 Sam. 12: 23). David evidently 
knew nothing of intercourse with the spirits of the departed. 


A well-known spiritualistic author, writing under the nom 
de plume, "Oxford, M. A.," says: "So long as you reply 
to our arguments with a text, we cannot teach you. Any 
one who can so reply is beyond reach of reasonable teaching" 
("Spirit Teachings," p. 198). 

The author of "Outlines of Spiritualism for the Young," 
says: "To assert that it [the Bible] is a holy and Divine 
book, that God inspired the writers to make known His Divine 
will, is a gross outrage on, and misleading to, the public. 
. . . The truth is, the Old Testament is neither more 
nor less than Jewish history. . . . The New Testament is 
made up of traditions and theological speculations by unknown 
persons. A book so full of errors . . . requires to be 
read with care" {"Outlines," pp. 13, 14). 

Refusal of the Bible could not be more explicit. 

Modern Spiritualism Briefly Tested by Scripture 113 


The rise and progress of Modern Spiritualism is dearly- 
indicated in Holy Scripture: "Now the Spirit speaketh 
expressly, that in the latter times some shall depart from 
the faith, giving heed to seducing spirits and doctrines of 
devils; speaking lies in hypocrisy; having their conscience 
seared with a hot iron ; forbidding to marry, and commanding 
to abstain from meats" (1 Tim. 4:1-3). The gravity of the 
warning is emphasized by the way it is introduced, "Now the 
Spirit speaketh expressly" 

"seducing spirits" 

So crafty is the enemy that the spirits often advise the 
uninitiated to pray and to read the Bible. While the immediate 
purpose of such advice is to gain the victim's confidence, the 
ultimate object is to undermine faith in the Scriptures. The 
spirits giving such advice are well described as "seducing 

A lady, a Christian worker, was persuaded to attend a 
Spiritualistic meeting. She was advised to read the Bible 
and pray. This led her to believe that the spirit of a Chris- 
tian was speaking to her. When the "seducing spirits" had 
thus gained her confidence, they led her to question certain 
parts of the Bible. The result was that she became a com- 
plete infidel, going absolutely to the bad, not only spiritually 
but morally. "By their fruits ye shall know them." 

In the temptation in the , wilderness we see how Satan 
quoted Scripture, leaving out an essential part for his evil 
purpose; and we see how a text of Scripture sufficed for his 
defeat. Scripture clearly indicates deceitfulness as his chief 
characteristic. (2 Cor. 2 : 11 ; 2 Cor. 11 : 14, 15.) 


Before quoting a few texts, so dreaded by "Oxford, M. A." 
and his confreres, it would be well to clear the ground by 

114 The Fundamentals 

stating that Spiritualists affirm their belief in God as Creator 
and Sustainer; deny that the Lord Jesus was and is Divine; 
deny the existence of the devil, demons and angels. They 
affirm their belief in the existence of an impersonal God, and 
of human beings, either incarnate — that is, in their human 
bodies in this world; or discarnate — that is, disembodied in 
the spirit-world, as they term it. The system is simplicity 
itself. If there be no devil, Spiritualism cannot be Satanic. 
If there be no demons, there can be no truth in the charge 
that the spirits that communicate with the living, claimed by 
them to be the spirits of departed friends, are in reality per- 
sonating demons, or "seducing spirits." Thus the way is 
cleared for Modern Spiritualism. 

Under the heading of "Biblical Spiritualism," if you please, 
the author of "Outlines" quotes a number of passages of 
Scripture in the vain endeavor to prove that the Bible is not 
opposed to Spiritualism. In every passage he quotes except 
one (the well-known case of the witch of Endor), we are 
given instances of angelic visitation. Mark well : in no instance 
does he quote the plain condemnations of Spiritualism the 
Bible contains. Is this honest? But since he appeals to the 
Bible, to the Bible we are well content to turn. 


"And the soul that turneth after such as have familiar 
spirits, and after wizards, to go a whoring after them, I . . . 
will cut him off from among his people" (Lev. 20:6; also 

"A man also, or woman that hath a familiar spirit, or 
that is a wizard, shall surely be put to death ; they shall stone 
them with stones" (Lev. 20:27). 

"There shall not be found among you any one . . . 
that useth divination, or an observer of times, or an enchanter, 
or a witch, or a charmer, or a consulter with familiar spirits, 
or a wizard, or a necromancer" (Deut. 18: 10, 11). 

Modern Spiritualism Briefly Tested by Scripture 115 

"They shall no more offer their sacrifices unto devils" 
(Lev. 17:7; Deut. 32 : 17 ; Psa. 106 : 37). 

"And when they shall say unto you, Seek unto them that 
have familiar spirits, and unto wizards that peep and that 
mutter; should not a people seek unto their God? for the 
living to the dead? [See R. V.] To the law and the testi- . 
mony: if they speak not according to this word, it is because 
there is no light in them" (Isa. 8: 19, 20). 

From the foregoing we see in the Old Testament, that 

1. Spiritualism is sternly forbidden by God. 

2. It is defiling. 

3. Its followers GOD would destroy. 

4. Its mediums, THE PEOPLE were commanded to stone 
to death. 

5. It is no new thing. Satan and his myriads of demons 
have been busy at their work of deception ever since the Fall. 

6. It is not an advance on Christianity, as some affirm, 
but a backward movement to the worst features of heathenism. 

Isaiah 8:19, 20 is especially conclusive; plainly showing 
that it is wrong for the living to seek the dead, rather than 
God Himself. Spiritualism is the settiijg aside of God Him- 
self, hence of morality, uprightness, and every true principle. 


"Then was Jesus led up of the Spirit in the wilderness to 
be tempted of the devil" (Matt. 4:1). This proves that there 
is a personal devil. Indeed, only one person is called in 
Scripture the devil, the Greek word meaning the accuser. 
Demon is really the correct description of the myriad fallen 
spirits who own Satan as their prince. (Matt. 12:24.) 

"They brought unto Him all sick people that were taken 
with divers diseases and torments, and those which were 
possessed [Greek: daimonizomai — demonized or denjon-pos- 
ses&ed] with devils, and those which were lunatic, and those 
that had the palsy ; and He healed them" (Matt., 4 : 24) . , 

116 The Fundamentals 

This passage is most important, as from it and other 
Scriptures it is plain that demon-possession is distinct from 
disease, though the two are often, and naturally, present 
together; for disease is the product of sin. It has been con- 
tended that demon-possession and lunacy are the same, but 
this Scripture shatters that contention, as it differentiates 
between them: 

"There met Him two possessed with devils . . . and, 
behold, they cried out, saying, . . . Art Thou come hither 
to torment us before the time ? ... So the devils besought 
Him, saying. If Thou cast us out, suffer us to go away into 
the herd of swine. And He said unto them. Go. And when 
they were come out, they went into the herd of swine; and, 
behold, the whole herd of swine ran violently down into a 
steep place into the sea, and perished in the waters" (Matt. 

"And there was in their synagogue a man with an unclean 
spirit; and he cried out, saying, Let us alone; what have we 
to do with Thee, Thou Jesus of Nazareth? Art Thou come 
to destroy us? I know Thee who Thou art, the Holy One 
of God" (Mark 1:23, 24). 

These passages prove that derrions know and recognize 
the authority of the Lord Jesus as the Son of God; that they 
are aware of their future, and dread it. 

"Jesus . . . rebuked the foul spirit, saying unto him. 
Thou dumb and deaf spirit, I charge thee, come out of him, 
and enter no more into him. And the spirit cried, and rent 
him sore, and came out of him" (Mark 9:25, 26; Rev. 

From these Scriptures and the preceding one (Mark 1 : 23, 
24) we learn the unclean character of these seducing spirits. 
Further, that they are strong, sullen and vicious, and can hurt 
their victims physically to a dangerous degree. 

The case is cited of a minister who took up automatic 
writing. At first the communications were pure, and expressed 

Modern Spiritualism Briefly Tested by Scripture 117 

in beautiful language. After a time they became mixed with 
obscene language. Then he heard voices, and things so preyed 
upon his mind that he became insane, and died in three months, 
raving mad. 

The following well-known passage from Spiritualistic 
literature is very significant: "They come, THE DOOR 
ONCE OPEN, in crowds, in riotous invasion. They run, 
they leap, they fly, they gesticulate, they sing, they whoop, and 
they curse. . . . Mind, body, soul, memory and imagina- 
tion — nay the very heart — are polluted by the ghostly can- 

May God preserve the writer and reader from ever open- 
ing the door to such diabolical wickedness; or if already 
opened, may he or she seek the power of Him, who is stronger 
than the strong man armed, even of the Lord Jesus Christ. 

"Mary called Magdalene, out of whom went seven devils" 
(Luke 8:2). 

"And Jesus asked him saying, What is thy name ? And he 
said, Legion, because many devils were entered into him" 
(Luke 8: 30). 

Here is evidence that more than one demon may take 
possession of the human body. Mediums admit that at times 
several spirits control them, and hence the incoherency of 
the messages. 

"A certain damsel possessed with a spirit of divination 
met us . . . the same followed Paul and us, and cried, 
saying. These men are the servants of the most high God, 
which show unto us the way of salvation. . . . But Paul 
being grieved, turned and said to the spirit, I command thee in 
the name of the Lord Jesus to come out of her. And he came 
out the same hour" (Acts 16: 16-18). 

"Then certain of the vagabond Jews, exorcists, took upon 
them to call over them which had evil spirits the name of 
the Lord Jesus, saying, We adjure you by Jesus, whom Paul 
preacheth. And there were seven sons of one Sceva, a Jew, 

118 The Fundamentals 

and chief of the priests, which did so. And the evil spirit 
answered and said, Jesus I know and Paul I know ; but who 
are ye? And the man, in whom the evil spirit was, leaped 
on them, and overcame them, and prevailed against them, 
so that they fled out of the house naked and wounded" (Acts 

The contrast between these passages is deeply instructive. 
The damsel, possessed by the evil spirit, advertises Paul and 
his companions as "servants of the most high God, which 
show unto us the way of salvation." Her conduct, very like 
that of modern mediums, who advise the reading of the Bible 
and prayer, did not deceive the Apostle. Observe how the 
Apostle uses the name of One whom he knew; whereas the 
exorcists, mere imitators, said, "We adjure thee by Jesus 
whom Paul preacheth," that is. One of whom they knew 
nothing for themselves. The consequences were disastrous; 
for instead of resisting the devil, and the devil fleeing, as in 
Paul's case of exorcism, the demon urged his victim to deeds 
of violence. 

"The things which the Gentiles [heathen] sacrifice, they 
sacrifice to devils, and not to God" (1 Cor. 10:20, 21). 

This passage proves that behind heathendom, idol worship, 
sun worship, etc., there is demon power; that heathendom with 
its frightfully wicked, base, voluptuous customs, is a vast 
system of Spiritualism. Missionaries in India and heathen 
lands are able to confirm what I allude to here. 

"And the rest of the men which were not killed by these 
plagues, yet repented not of the works of their hands, that they 
should not worship devils, and idols of gold, and silver, and 
brass, and stone and of wood. . . . neither repented they 
of their murders, nor of their sorceries, nor of their fornica- 
tion, nor of their thefts" (Rev. 9: 20, 21). 

"They are the spirits of devils, working miracles" (Rev. 

Rev. 9:20, 21 clearly identifies the worship of devils with 

Modern Spiritualism Briefly Tested by Scripture 119 

that of idols of gold, etc., and shows how vioknce and immor- 
ality are its accompaniments; while Rev. 16: 14 adds the power 
of working miracles. 

The reader now has before him most ample testimony from 
Scripture as to the source of Spiritualism, its wickedness and 
powers, and of the utter condemnation meted out to it by God. 


There is possibly one solitary instance in Scripture in 
which God permitted the spirit of one departed to revisit the 
earth for a specific purpose. (See 1 Sam. 28: 3-25.) We have 
here either a piece of skilful acting on the part of the witch 
of Endor; or, what seems more natural, there was a real 
appearance of Samuel at the behest, not of the witch, but 
of God Almighty Himself. King Saul, after a long course of 
evil, was in sore straits. In his dilemma he enquired of the 
Lord, but He did not answer him, "neither by dreams, nor by 
Urim nor by prophets." Disguised, Saul asked the witch 
to bring up Samuel. God then intervened. He restrained 
the personating demon from appearing at the medium's 
behest, and, judging from the matter-of-fact narration, allowed 
the spirit of Samuel to appear. The medium was evidently 
astonished beyond measure. "When the woman saw Samuel, 
she cried with a loud voice," charging Saul with deception. 

This is the only case on record in the Scriptures where, 
apparently, the spirit of one departed has been permitted to 
revisit the earth for a specific purpose, whereas Spiritualists 
claim that there is continual intercourse between living per- 
sons and departed spirits., And note, Samuel did not come 
at the call of the medium of Endor, and God will not allow 
the spirits of the departed to be at the beck and call of any 
medium, who may be of questionable character. 1 Chron. 
10:13, 14 specifically tells us that Saul died for his trans- 
gressions, including his invoking the demon's aid: "So Saul 
died for his transgressions, . . . and also for aMng 

120 The Fundamentals 

counsel of one that had a familiar spirit, to enquire of it; 
and enquired not of the Lord." 


We have seen how the blessed Saviour went about "heal- 
ing all that were oppressed of the devil," showing what He 
thought of Spiritualism. Yet, in spite of such plain testi- 
mony. Dr. Wisse, a noted Spiritualist, said: "All testimony 
received from advanced spirits only shows that Christ was 
a medium or reformer in Judea ; that He is now an advanced 
spirit in the sixth sphere; but that He never claimed to be 
God and does not at present." 

The late Gerald Massey, poet, and Spiritualist, wrote: 
"I do not find that Christ claimed for Himself more than He 
held out as possible for others. When He identified Himself 
with the Father, it was in the oneness of mediumship. He 
was the great Medium or. Mediator."* 

Could profanity go farther? The Lord Jesus again and 
again claimed for Himself that which He could share with 
none other. "For there is one God, and ONE MEDIATOR 
between God and man, the Man Christ Jesus; who gave Him^ 
self a ransom for all, to be testified in due time" (1 Tim. 
2:5, 6), shatters the whole of his contention. The daring of 
confounding m^edium with Mediator is awful. A blow against 
redemption is thus aimed. It is not scholarship or philosophy, 
but profanity and knavery. We may well ask, Why cannot 
Spiritualism leave Christ's name alone? They seem impelled 
to endeavor to get His support for their system. It only 
proves most conclusively that Spiritualists feel the reality of 
Christianity and of Christ, and are forced to these attentions. 
They are not continually fighting against Mohammedanism 
and Brahminism and the like. 

♦Another noted Spiritualist, Dr. J. M. Peebles, wfote, "The 
Apostle (Paul) with a singular clearness of perception pronounced 
the Nazarene a Mediator, i. e., a Medium, between God and man." 

Modern Spiritualism Briefly Tested by Scripture 121 


Modern Spiritualism denies — 

1. The inspiration of the Bible. 

2. The fall of man. 

3. The Deity of the Lord Jesus. 

4. The atoning value of His death. 

5. The existence of a personal devil.* 

6. The existence of demons. 

7. The existence of angels. 

8. The existence of heaven. 

9. The existence of hell.* 

Enough has been written to prove the above statements, 
but it is as well to place it in clear tabulated form, so that 
the reader may see that Spiritualism is the absolute negation 
of Christianity. In 1866 at a Spiritualistic conference held at 
Providence, Rhode Island, U. S. A., at which eighteen states 
and territories were represented, the following daring resolu- 
tions were passed : , | 

1. To abandon all Christian ordinances and worship. 

2. To discontinue all Sunday Schools. 

3. To denounce sexual tyranny. 

4. To affirm that animal food should not be used. 

We have so far had ample Biblical proof that 1 Tim. 4: 1-3 
applies to Spiritualism in its prediction that in the latter times 
some would depart from the faith and would pay heed to 
seducing spirits and doctrines of devils. To this Nos. 3 and 
4 resolutions carry us on to "forbidding, to marry" and "com- 
manding to abstain from meats." 

And yet with all this negation of Christianity Spiritualists 
continue in many cases to be members and ministers of 
churches, calling themselves Christian Spiritualists. For in- 
stance, the late Rev. H. R. Haweis, M. A., Incumbent of 
St. James', Marylebone, a special preacher in Westminster 

♦"All spirit people of wisdom, knowledge and love say there is no 
burning hell ... no fearful devil."— "Outlines," p. IS. 

122 The Fundamentals 

Abbey, and Royal Institution Lecturer, said in 1900 in an ad- 
dress : 

"Spiritualism fitted very nicely on to Christianity; it 
seemed to be a legitimate development, not a contradiction, not 
an antagonist. . . . Spiritualism had rehabilitated the 
Bible. . . . They [spiritualistic phenomena] occur every 
day in London as well as in the Acts of the Apostles." 


The Rev. Frank Swainson in his addresses on Spiritual- 
ism speaks of its "three black I's — Infidelity, Insanity and Im- 


In a Spiritualistic book,. "Whatever Is, Is Right," circulat- 
ing among a certain section of advanced Spiritualists, we read 
the following: 

"What is evil? Evil does not exist, evil is good." 

"What is a lie? A lie is the truth intrinsically; it holds a 
lawful place in creation ; it is a necessity." 

"What is vice? Vice and virtue, too, are beautiful in the 
eyes of the soul." 

"What is virtue? Virtue is good and sin is good. The 
woman who came tc» the well of Sychar was just as pure 
in spirit before she met Christ, even though she was a harlot, 
as she was afterwards when she went to live a different life. 
There's no difference between Herod the murderer of the 
babies in Bethlehem,' and Christ the Saviour of men." 

"What is murder? Murder is good. Murder is a per- 
fectly natural act." 

"What are evil spirits? There are no evil spirits. There 
is no devil and no Christ. Christ and the devil are both alike." 

"'For not a path on earth is trod 
That does not lead the soul to God.' 

"No matter how bad that path may be, whether it be the 

Modern Spiritualism Briefly Tested by Scripture 123 

path of the har, the murderer ; it is the path of Divine Ordina- 
tion and Divine Destiny." ,, I, - , 


• ■ \ II'' 

Dr. Forbes Winslow, Oxford Lecturer on' Mental Dis- 
eases, of Charing Cross Hospital, said the prevalence of mad- 
ness owing to Spiritualism was on the increase. The late 
Reader Harris, K. C, wrote : "The most remarkable case of 
mediumship I have met with was that of a lady, who com- 
menced with a little seetningly innocent table-turning at a 
children's party, and finished up by death in a madhouse." 

Sir William Crookes, claimed by the Spiritualists as a 
strong sympathizer, .wrote: "After,; witnessing the painful 
state of nervous and bodily prostration in which many of the 
experiments have left the medium fainting, pale, breathless, 
I cannot doubt but that the violence of psychic forces means 
a corresponding drain on the vital forces." 

Is this the high and holy substitute for Christianity? Is 
this the glorious effect of truth? 


Mr. T. L. Harris, once a Spiritualistic.medium, testifies that 
the marriage vow imposes no obligation .on the Spiritualistic 
husband. They have been know;n to abandon their own wives, 
and prefer the company of those of whom the spirits ■ told 
them that they had a closer spiritual afifinity to, them. Mrs. 
WoodhuU, elected three years in succession as president of 
the Spiritist Societies in America, often lectured in favor of 
free love; and advocated the abolition pf marriage ("forbid- 
ding to marry"), stigmatizing virtue and responsibility as the 
two thieves on the cross. She said : "It was the sublime 
mission of Spiritism to deliver humanity from the thraldom 
of matrimony, and to establish, sexual emancipation." Rev. 
F. Swainson, writing of a lady of his acquaintanceyrjsays: 
"Up to the time that her husband came into contact with 

124 The Fundamentals 

Spiritism he was all that could be desired. When he took 
to Spiritism he came in touch with a certain Spiritist woman, 
who claimed affinity. The result was this, that the man cruel- 
ly deserted his wife, and left her to die, as she is dying today, 
of a broken heart. That man today is passing as a leading 
official of a Spiritist circle in England." 

The charge against the "three black Fs" of Modem Spir- 
itualism is well proved. 


I shall now describe what Spiritualism offers in place of 
the Bible as our guide, Christ as our Saviour, heaven as our 
eternal home. According to the author of "Outlines," man 
is made up of a soul, a spiritual body, and a physical body. 

"There is something more than the nerves which we can- 
not see, because it is as fine in its nature as the perfume of 
flowers. This fine something is called 'nerve-aura' . . . All 
above what is required for daily use is thrown off like perfume 
from flowers. . . . Our spiritual bodies are formed of 
this fine nerve-aura, which is spiritualized matter. . . . 
When our spiritual friends and guardians visit us, they . . . 
look ... at our spiritual bodies, and by their purity or 
otherwise, they can see at a glance what kind of lives we 
live. . . . People who indulge in evil habits, such as opium 
or tobacco smoking, and laudanum and intoxicating drink, 
carry the appetite with them at death; it is because some of 
the narcotic and alcohol from these things help to compose 
the spiritual body, that they crave or hunger for their kind. 
So that these spirit people seek those in the body who still 
indulge in these bad habits, and get their craving satisfied 
through other people" {"Outlines," pp. 30-32). 

So we read on : "I have explained to you how the spirit- 
body is formed — that it is the spiritualized or refined particles 
of our physical body: so that you will understand me when 
I tell you that the spirit world is made up of refined or spir- 

Modern Spiritualism Briefly Tested by Scripture 125 

itualized particles given off by the earth. Every blade of 
grass, every tiny flower, shrub and tree, insect and animal, by 
their lives cause matter to become refined and spiritualized, 
which then ascends high above the clouds, and there spreads 
out in a broad belt, and surrounds the earth, like the rings of 
Saturn surround that planet. There are a great number of 
these rings or zones, one beyond the other, which may be 
called spirit worlds" ("Outlines," p. 33). 

Then we are told in "Outlines" that in the spirit-world 
souls may do wrong there, as they do here. When they do, 
they reap what they sow, and are punished, and thus they 
are gradually purified and blessed — they become their own 
saviours, though why they should need to be saved seems a 

We read also that after death, if the spiritual life is kind, 
and gentle and good, the grosser elements of the spiritual 
body are eliminated, leaving the body more refined and spir- 
itual ; so that it can rise into a higher zone, which, in its turn, 
is composed of the more refined and spiritualized elements 
eliminated from this higher zone, and the third zone is com- 
posed of the still more refined and spiritualized elements 
from the second, and so on. And yet people who are too 
"clever" to believe the Bible are so fooJish as to believe such 
bombastic nonsense put forward without one atom of proof. 


In "Outlines," while there is a stout refusal of the doc- 
trine of total depravity, and the fall of man is denied,* there 
is no attempt whatever to adequately explain the awful sor- 
row and suffering in this world, and the still more awful sor- 
row of death. We are told God is too good to allow man's 
fall or the existence of what is malevolent, like Satan and his 
demons ; but the present awful state of things, which God has 

*"Thus, by his [man's! intellectual faculties, moral powers, and 
spiritual nature, he is 'God manifest in the flesh.'"— "Oi«//««m." 

126 The Fundamentals 

allowed for His own wise and inscrutable purpose, the author 
of "Outlines" shirks and must shirk. He throws away the 
only lamp of truth — the Word of God. Can we wonder that 
he walks in darkness, and that his wisdom is folly indeed, 
fraught with awful consequences? 

We have now had ample proof from Scripture that Spirit- 
ualism is in reality demonism. Nay, more; in some way or 
other every form of evil has its origin, I believe, in this 
cult. Heathendom in its nameless horrors is Spiritualism. 
All false religions bear features of their common parent. 
They may vary as to details, and contradict each other (for 
Satan must have many baits for many minds), but the es- 
sence of all evil teaching is Satanic, and therefore Spiritual- 
ism in its essence. 


While it is well that we should be aware of the awful 
power of Satan, the believer has no need to be personally 
afraid, if only he keeps near to the Lord and cleaves to His 
Word. "Resist the devil, and he will flee from you" (James 
4:7). "Be sober, be vigilant; because your adversary the 
devil, as a roaring lion, walketh about, seeking whom he may 
devour; whom resist, steadfast in the faith" (1 Pet. 5:8, 9). 
"For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against prin- 
cipalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness 
of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places. 
Wherefore take unto you the whole armor of God, that ye 
may be able to withstand in the evil day, and having done all, 
to stand" (Eph. 6:10-13). "Ye are of God, little children, 
and have overcome them [that is, spirits that confess not that 
Jesus Christ is come in the flesh] ; because greater is He that 
is in you [that is, the Holy Ghost], than he that is in the 
world [that is, the devil]" (1 John 4:4). 

We may walk serenely through this evil world, conscious 
of the Lord's protecting hand, just as Elisha was calm, con- 

Modern Spiritualism Briefly Tested by Scripture 127 

scious that he was protected by the mountain being full of 
horses and chariots of fire. With all the glittering rewards of 
divination within the reach of the covetous Balaam, if only 
he would curse God's people, he was obliged to cry out, "Sure- 
ly there is no enchantment against Jacob, neither is there any 
divination against Israel" (Num. 23 : 23). 

A friend has just given me an authentic instance of the 
power of Christ's name. A Spiritualist in Bradford invited a 
Christian neighbor to one of their meetings. The Christian, 
wearied by her neighbor's importunity, made a compact with 
her, that if she attended once she would never again be in- 
vited. They went to the meeting. After a little while the 
medium, who had no previous knowledge of her, declared 
there was a Christian present, and until that Christian left 
the room they could not proceed. The Christian kept her seat. 
After a few minutes the medium again said there was a 
Christian present and insisted that the person should leave the 
meeting. The Christian lady thereupon retired. When her 
neighbor returned home, she informed her that the meeting 
proceeded after she left without any further difficulty. Such 
is the power of Christ's name. 


Amidst all the abounding evil, the uninstructed believer 
might well be bewildered. But Scripture furnishes a simple 
but thorough test of every system of teaching. It will be 
seen that the Person of Christ is the test. "Every spirit that 
CONFESSETH NOT that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh, 
is not of God; and this is that spirit of antichrist" (1 John 
4:3). "He is antichrist, that denieth the Father and the Son" 
(1 John 2:22). "Wherefore I give you to understand, that 
no man speaking by the Spirit of God calleth Jesus accursed : 
and that no man can say that Jesus is the Lord, but by the 
Holy Ghost" (1 Cor. 12:3). 


Particular attention is hereby called to the following points: 
1. All English-speaking Protestant pastors, evangelists, missionaries, 
theological professors, theological students, Y. M. C. A. secretaries, 
Y. W. C. A. secretaries, Sunday School superintendents, religious lay 
workers, and editors of religious publications throughout the earth, 
who so desire, are entitled to a free copy of each volume of "The 
Fundamentals." Any person, belonging to one of these classes, who 
has not received the earlier volumes, may obtain them upon applica- 
tion to the undersigned. State plainly which volumes are wanted, and 
state also the line of Christian work engaged in and the denominational 
affiliation. After an order is sent in, allow at least two weeks (and 
more if from a distance) for filling it. 

2 Changes of address should be promptly reported. Write plainly 
both the old and the new addresses in full. 

3. In case any person receives two or more copies of any one vol- 
ume, kindly notify us. These books are too valuable and the demand 
for them too great to permit waste through duplication. However, 
where extra copies have been received, they need not be returned, but 
may be loaned or otherwise placed in circulation. 

4. To meet the demand on the part of the laity each volume is being 
furnished postpaid at a cost of fifteen cents per copy, eight copies for 
one dollar, or one hundred copies for ten dollars. (In Great Britain, 
8d; 4s 2d; and £2 Is Id, respectively.) These prices will be applied 
to the cost of issuing future volumes. 

5. Do not send currfncy or personal checks. Remit by post office 
money order, or by bank draft on Chicago, New York, or London, 
making the same payable to the Testimony Publishing Company. 

6. Foreign correspondents should be careful to prepay card and 
letter postage in full. Otherwise we are compelled to pay double the 
amount of the deficiency. 

7. Please bear in mind that we publish nothing except "The Funda- 
mentals," and do not issue any catalogue. 

In conclusion, we would emphasize once more the great importance 
of writing plainly and briefly, and always giving full address — street 
(or rural route) number, post office, state, and (if outside of the 
United States) country. 

Much time and delay will be saved by carefully reading and comply- 
ing with the foregoing directions. 


808 La Salle Avenue, 

Chicago, Illinois, U. S. A. 

Cornell University Library 



The Fundamentals 

,. 3 1924 031 663 168